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1' R 1 v r E n n y m a r t i l: s t r v k l s e n 















prefatory ifiote* 

The first, tentative issue of Mimir is unavoidably 
marred by many imperfections. It is hoped that most of 

I these defects and errors, with the kind aid of those whose 

; names belong in its lists, will have disappeared in a second 

I issue, to be made at an early day. 

I The objects of the publication are : i . To facilitate 
research, in the territory which it attempts to cover, by 
making the labourers in the same domain known to one 
another — that the work of each may be rendered available 
to all; 2. To inform the people of Iceland, on the one 
hand, of the wide and encouraging interest taken by the 
learned of other nations in their early literature and history, 
and of the valuable results of that interest; 3. To bring 
the foreign student of Old-Northern letters, on the other 
hand, into nearer relations with the only region in which 
the Old-Northern language is still a living speech, in which 
the Sagas are still household reading, and the sense and 
sentiment of the ancient poems are still felt, while, in other 
Germanic lands, the classics of the earlier periods — 
Beowulf and the Canterbury Tales, the Nibelungen lays 
and the epic story of Parsifal — have become works no 
longer understood of the people; 4. To promote the proper 
development, already happily begun, of that little nationality, 
a fragment of the old Teutonic world, which has kept itself 


alive, against innumerable obstacles, on the border of the 
Arctic seas. 

The thanks of the Editors are due to the many scholars 
and writers who have responded with promptness to the 
enquiries adressed to them; to Dr. fimile Ruelle, director 
of the Library of Sainte-Genevieve, Paris ; to Regierungsrat 
Joseph Calasanz Poestion, librarian of the Ministry of the 
Interior, Vienna; to stud, philos. Wilhelm P. Sommerfeldt, 
Christiania; to more than one official of the Royal Library, 
Munich; to the Secretary of the Royal Belgian Geograph- 
ical Society, Brussels; to the Secretary of the Geograph- 
ical Society of Paris; to Dr. FeHx Wagner, Virton, 
Belgium ; to Professor Finnur j6nsson of the University of 
Copenhagen; to Professor Thorvaldur Thoroddsen, the, 
well-known scientist, Copenhagen; to Mr. Bogi Th. Mel- 
sted, the Icelandic historian and bibliographer, Copenhagen; 
to Dr. J6n Stefdnsson, at present residing in London; and 
to the officers of that active organization, the Viking Club 
of Great Britain. 

It is intended to give the subsequent yearly volumes 
a broader bibliographical character by including the titles 
of all important works produced by the writers cited, and, 
in general, by reproducing them more fully and exactly. 
To attain the desired completeness, additions and correc- 
tions, changes of address and other proper information 
will be gratefully received and gladly used if addressed, 
before June i, 1904, to Mimir, Lungo il Mugnone 11, 
Florence, Italy. 


It is impossible to end these introductory lines without 
a mournful recurrence to the two great names, which, 
a few months ago, would have given to the following pages 
a glory they now lack — the names of konrad von maurer 
and GUST A V storm. 

December igoj. 


ITable of Contents* 

Prefatory Note . . page V 

In Iceland: 

Institutions » i 

Addresses , » 9 

In Denmark: 

Institutions » 17 

Addresses » 20 

In America: 

Addresses . > 22 

Foreign Icelandic Scholars - 25 

Current Icelandic Serials - 47 

In America > 49 

Notes on Icelandic Matters: 

Correspondence > 50 

Icelandic Books for Foreign Libraries > 50 

Gifts to Icelandic Libraries > 51 

How to get to Iceland > 51 

Iceland as a Summer Sanatorium > 53 

The Natural Wonders of Iceland ^ 57 

Foreign Scholars in Iceland > 69 

Recent Constitutional Changes > 73 

Iceland's present Progress ^> 75 

Iceland's new Coat of Arms ^> 78 

The Icelandic Post » 79 


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The Icelandic Literary Society (Hid islenzka Bokmennt- 
afelag). Founded March 30, 1816, at the instance of the Danish 
philologist, Rasmus Christian Rask; it has for its object "by 
the publication of books and by other undertakings to preserve 
the Icelandic language and literature, and thereby the civili- 
zation and honour of the nation." It has issued a great number 
of valuable works and serials — literary, historical, statistical 
and scientific — the whole forming a most important section 
of modern Icelandic letters. Under the presidency of that able 
scholar and statesman, Jon SigurSsson, it attained great pros- 
perity. A careful history of its origin and progress, with a 
complete Hst of its publications, was published on its fiftieth 
anniversary, "Hi6 islenzka Bokmenntafelag 1816— 1866." The 
society consists of two divisions, one having its seat in Reyk- 
javik, the other in Copenhagen. It has about 500 members, 
a permanent fund of 21,035 crowns, and a government appro- 
priation of 3,000 crowns annually, its total income for 1902 
having been approximatively 7,980 crowns. The annual sub- 
scription is 6 crowns (two dollars, or eight shillings), for which 
all the current publications are received. — i. Reykjavik Divi- 
sion: President, the Rev. Eirikur Briem; Secretary, the Rev. 
Thorhallur Bjarnarson. 2. Copenhagen Division : /*r^j/<3f(?;//, 
Olafur Halldorsson; Secretary, Professor Finnur Jonsson. 
Addresses: i. Reykjavik, Iceland; 2. AmaHenborg, Copenhagen, 

The Icelandic Patriotic Society (Hid islenzka Pjodvin- 
afelag), founded June 8, 1870 with a political object, but has 
developed into a society for the publication of works of popular 


value. It publishes a well compiled Almanac (Almanak Pjod- 
vinafelagsins), an excellent political and economic annual CAnd- 
vari), the series comprising 29 volumes, and many other 
utilitarian works. Membership, 2 crowns a year. The board of j 
directors is chosen by the members of the Althing in their i 
individual capacity. — President, Tryggvi Gunnarsson, di- I 
rector of the National Bank. Address: Reykjavik. | 

The Icelandic Bible Society (Hid islenzka Bibliufelag), \ 
founded Sept. 10, 18 16 by the missionary and traveller, Ebe- 
nezer Henderson, and has charge of the circulation of the 
scriptures in Iceland. It has taken part in the preparation of 
editions of the Bible and Testament issued by the British and 
Foreign Society, and is now engaged on a general revised 
version, of which several parts have already appeared separately. 
— President, the bishop of Iceland, the Right Rev. Hallgrim- 
ur Sveinsson. Address: Reykjavik. 

The Icelandic Natural History Society and Museum 
(Hid islenzka NdtturufrcBdisfelag and Ndtturugripasafn), foun- 
ded 1889, has since that time brought together a small but 
interesting museum of domestic and foreign objects. It has 
published yearly reports from the beginning, some of them 
containing, as appendices, articles of value, such as lists of 
Icelandic fishes (1891) and birds (1895), ^.nd a history of botan- 
ical researches on the island (1891). Membership in 1901, 144, 
(2 crowns yearly). It receives government aid to the amount 
of 500 cxoy^ns. — President, Helgi Petursson; Secretary, 
Bjarni Saemundsson. Address: Reykjavik. 

The Icelandic Historical Society (Hid islenzka Sogiifelag) 
was founded 1902. Its purpose is the publication of historic 
manuscripts and documents, and it has already issued two volumes. 
Membership, 5 crowns a year. — President, Dr. Jon Thorkels- 
s o n, the younger ; Secretary, Jonjonsson. Address : Reykjavik. 

The Archeological Society (Hid islenzka Fornleifafelag). 
Established Nov. 5, 1879 devoting itself to researches into* the 


antiquities of the island, to the preservation of its ancient re- 
mains, and to promoting- a knowledge of the Sagas and of 
ancestral customs. It has carried on a series of explorations, 
uncovering the relics of some of the pagan temples, and of 
many of the historic farmsteads of the early centuries, besides 
having mapped the sites of various important events. Its trans- 
actions (Arbok), forming now 17 large octavo volumes of high 
interest, contain the results of the extensive excavations made 
by Sigurdur Vigfusson, (d. 1892) — a brother of the late Oxford 
philologist — by Brynjulfur Jonsson, and by the Danish archeo- 
logist, Daniel Bruun, all of which were conducted with sin- 
gular care and ingenuity. Membership, 2 crowns annually. — 
President, the Rev. Ei rikur Briem; Secretary, Palmi Palsson. 
Address: Reykjavik. Connected with this association is 

The Museum of Antiquities (Forngripasafn). This was 
organized Febr. 24, 1863 by the artist Sigurdur Gu5mundsson 
(d. 1874) and others, and has since grown to a collection of 
some 5,000 numbers, constantly enriched, from different parts 
of the country, with examples of its early arts and industry, 
such as silver and other metal work, embroideries, including 
ecclesiastical vestments from the Catholic period, textile fabrics, 
wood-carvings, antique furniture, weapons, and various dress- 
ornaments. The collection is well arranged and well housed 
in a new structure of stone, the lower story of which is occu- 
pied by the offices of the National Bank. The yearly Althing 
appropriation towards its support is 3,600 crowns. — Director, 
Jon Jakobsson. Address: Reykjavik. 

The National Picture QaXXery (M diver kasafnid), composed 
mostly of works by modern Scandinavian artists, has its home 
in the Capitol building; in the course of time it will, it is ex- 
pected, be extended by the addition of productions or copies 
of the masters of other lands. It is placed under the control 
of one of the presiding officers of the Althing (now Arni 
Thorsteinsson, secretary of finance). — Address: Reykjavik. 


The Agricultural Society of Iceland (Bunadarfelag 
Islands), an organization, which has been in existence, at first 
under a shghtly different title, since 1837, and which, of late 
years, has received very liberal sums from the Althing for field 
and garden experiments. It has a permanent fund of 30,000 
crowns, while the government appropriation (1903 — 1904) is 
20,000 crowns. — President, the Rev. Thorhallur Bjarnarson. 
Address: Reykjavik. 

The College Alumni Association (Hid islenzka Studenta- 
felag), composed of former members of the College, receives 
a yearly sum of 300 crowns from the Althing for the mainte- 
nance of series of public lectures. — President, Bjarni Jonsson. 
Address: Reykjavik. 

The Icelandic Teachers' Association (Hid islenzka Kenn- 
arafelag). Founded Febr. 23, 1889, and has for its purpose 
"to elevate both the lower and higher education of the Ice- 
landic people." It formerly published an educational periodical, 
which, however, has now ceased to appear. It has a fund of 
1000 crowns. Membership, 2 crowns. — President, Jon Thor- 
arinsson, director of the South-Icelandic High-school. Address: 

The College of Iceland (Hinn Icerdi skoli), being the old 
cathedral schools, dating from the 12th century, of Holar and 
Skalholt united. They were transferred from their original 
seats, at the beginning of the 19th century, to Reykjavik, then 
to BessastaSir (1806), and finally back again to Reykjavik (1846). 
The course of study is six years; at the end of this period 
about 70 per cent of its graduating students enter the University 
of Copenhagen. The annual income from all sources, including 
that from the government, is 35,000 crowns. Library 19,000 
volumes. Number of students (1902 — 03), 100. — Rector, Dr. 
Bjorn Magnusson Olsen (classics); Teachers: Steingrimur 
Thorsteinsson (classics) ;Bj6rnJensson (mathematics) ; G e i r 
Zoega (English and French); Palmi Palss on (Icelandic and 


Danish); Thorleifur H. Bjarnason. (history); Bjarni Sae- 
mundsson (natural sciences, geography and drawing); Bjarni 
Jonsson (German); Brynjolfur Thorlaksson (music); Olaf- 
ur Rosenkranz (gymnastics); Haraldur Nielsson (reHg- 
ious instruction^ Address: Reykjavik. 

The Theological School (Prestaskdli). EstabHshed 1847, 
and having a course of 3 years; its graduates are eHgible to 
all livings in Iceland, but not in Denmark, whereas to the 
graduates of the University of Copenhagen Icelandic livings are 
nominally open; but owing to the difference of language no 
Dane has, since Catholic times, received any permanent eccle- 
siastical appointment in Iceland. Income, 1 1,380 crowns (1903). 
The school possesses a considerable library. — Director (lector 
theologiae), the Rev. Thorhallur Bjarnarson; i. Docent, 
the Rev. Jon H elgason; 2. Docent, the Rev. Eirikur Briem. 
Lecturer, Kristjan Jonsson (Ecclesiastical jurisprudence). 
Address: Reykjavik. 

The Medical School (Lcek7taskdli). Established Feb. 11, 
1876, as the incorporated successor of a private medical semi- 
nary dating its existence from 1863, which was under the 
supervision of the able Dr. Jon Hjaltalin (d. 1882), surgeon- 
general of the island. The position of district-physician (the 
island being divided into 42 medical districts) is open to those 
who have passed the course of 4 years in this school, supple- 
mented by a clinic course in obstetrics at Copenhagen and a 
half-year's general clinical attendance in a Copenhagen hospital. 
The Reykjavik hospital is under the charge of the school, the 
teachers and pupils of which likewise attend the Landakots- 
hospital belonging to the Icelandic Catholic mission. The school 
has a small library and museum. Income (.1903) 7,430 crowns. 
— Director, Dr. Jonas Jonassen (surgeon general). Docents : 
Gudmundur Magnusson (surgery); Gudmundur Bjorns- 
son (medicine). Lecturers: Bjorn Ola fs son (ophthalmy); Sae- 
mundur Bjarnhedinsson (bacteriology, dermatology); 


Michael Lund (chemistry and pharmaceutics^ Address: 

The North-Icelandic High-school (GagnfrcBdaskdli7m a 
Akureyri). Established at MoSruvellir in 1880, but on the 
destruction by fire of its chief building was removed to Akur- 
eyri, where its new edifice is in process of erection. Its library 
and cabinet were saved from the flames. Pupils, 32 (1901). 
Parliamentary appropriation (1903) 8,600 crowns. — Director, 
Jon Andresson Hjaltalin. Teachers: Stefan Stefansson; 
Halldor Briem. Address: Akureyri. 

The South-Icelandic High-school (Gag7ifrcF.daskdlinn i 
Flensborg) was founded in 1887 by the Rev. Thorarinn Bo5- 
varsson, who endowed the institution with a fund; from the 
government it has a yearly income of 2,500 crowns. Pupils 
(1901), 43. — Director, ]6\\ Thorarinsson. Teachers : johcinnes 
S i g f u s s o n; O g m u n d u r S i g u r 5 s s o n. Address : HafnarfjorSur. 

Female High-schools (Kvennaskolar) . These are three in 
number, the oldest being in Reykjavik (Directress, Mrs. Thora 
MelsteS); the second at '^Vondiuos (Directress, Miss GuS run 
Jonsdottir); the third is that at Akureyri {Directress, Miss 
Ingibjorg Torfadottir). The instruction includes the literary 
branches, household accomplishments, embroidery and cooking. 
All receive small government appropriations for the payment of 
instructors and the purchase of books and apparatus. Addresses 
as above. 

Agricultural Schools (l^unadarskolar). These number 
four, all of which receive government aid. Each has connected 
with it an agricultural farm, a library of reference and a col- 
lection of implements and apparatus. One is situated in each 
of the four provinces as follows: i. at Holar in the north 
(Director, Sigurdur Sigurc)sson); 2. at Eidar in the east 
(Director, Jonas Eiriksson); 3. at Hvanneyri in the south 
(Director, Hjortur Snorrason); 4. at Olafsdalur in the 
west (IHrector, Torfi Bjarnason), this last being of a par- 


tially private character. Most of the instructors have passed 
through courses at foreign agricultural .schools. Addresses as 

The Nautical School (Styrmiamiaskolinn), founded by 
the government in 1 890, and intended both to foster the interests 
of the sea-fisheries and to create a body of able seamen. The 
sessions of the school are held through the winter, the spring 
and summer being devoted to practical experience on the water. 
The government appropriation is annually 5,200 crowns. — 
Director, Pall Halldorsson. Assistant-teacher, Magnus 
Magnusson, Address: Reykjavik. 

The National Library (Landsbokasafn). Founded by the 
Danish professor, Charles Christian Rafn, in 1818; acquired in 
1845 the collection of manuscripts of bishop Steingrimur Jonsson; 
in 1880 the very remarkable collection of printed books (5,047 
vols.) and manuscripts (1,067 vols.), relating to Iceland, gathered 
by the statesman and scholar, Jon Sigur6sson (d. 1879); ^.nd in 
1 901 (at a cost of 22,000 crowns) the manuscripts belonging to 
the Icelandic Literary Society. It has received many gifts from 
all parts of the world, including an extensive miscellaneous 
collection from the late Dr. Adolf Fredrik Krieger, long a 
member of the Danish cabinet, and more recently (anonym- 
ously) a collection of 1,200 volumes on chess and its history. 
A very imperfect catalogue of the library was printed in 1825, and 
it issues yearly a list of its accessions. At present it numbers 
60,000 printed volumes and 8,000 MSS.,and is housed in crowd- 
ed and inadequate quarters in the Capitol building (Althing- 
ishus). Its annual grant from the government is about 9,000 
crowns besides occasional special appropriations. — Librarian, 
Haligrimur MelsteS; Assistant- Librarian, Jon Jakobsson. 
Address: Reykjavik. 

Provincial Public Libraries (Amtsbokasofn). These are 
three, and are partially maintained by the Althing (500 crowns 
each): i. Stykkisholmur (Bokasafn Vesturamtsins), librarian, 


the Rev. Sigurdur Gunnarsson; 2. at Akureyri (Bokasafn 
Norduramtsins), librarian, Julius SigurQsson; 3. at SeySis- 
fjorSur (Bokasafn Austuratntsins) , librarian, Skapti Josefs- 
son. Addresses as given. 

The Town Library at Isafjordur (Bokasafn Isafjardar- 
kaupstadar) — a small collection (over i ,000 volumes), lately 
established, and supported by the municipality and by sub- 
scription. Librarian, Dr. Thorvaldur Jonsson. Address; 

Students' Library and Reading-Room ( Lestrarfelagid 
Ipaka). — Founded in 1880 for the benefit and use of the stu- 
dents at the Icelandic College. Receives a considerable number 
of foreign periodicals. The library is supported by subscription, 
and numbers some 2,000 volumes. Address: Til If)oku, Reykja- 

The Qrimsey Library (Eyjarbokasafn). Founded 1901 in 
Grimsey, a small islet forming the northern-most tract of 
Icelandic territory, lying beyond the Arctic circle — forty miles 
from the nearest port, and often isolated during the winter for 
many weeks, owing to the turbulence of the intervening waters 
(Grimseyjarsund). It has been inhabited for the past 500 or 
600 years, having now fewer than 100 inhabitants (fishermen 
and bird-catchers), dwelling upon a dozen farmsteads; it sup- 
ported, even in the Catholic period, a parish church. The li- 
brary comprises chiefly Icelandic and Danish works, including 
books on fishes and birds, and many illustrated albums, por- 
traying foreign life and scenery. It has no income, and depends 
solely upon gifts. Librarian, the Rev. Matthias Eggertsson. 
Address: Til Eyjarbokasafnsins, Grimsey, per Akureyri, Iceland. 

National Archives (Landskjalasafn). Organized in 1900, 
containing some thousands of documents going back to the 
date of the introduction of the Lutheran church (about 1550) 
— supplementary to the vast mass of Icelandic charters, deeds, 
acts, rescripts, letters, inventories, and other public and private 


records, deposited in various archives and libraries at Copen- 
hagen. The archives receive an appropriation from the govern- 
ment, which for the year 1903 amounted to 2,775 crowns. — 
Archivist, Dr. Jon Thorkelsson. Address: Reykjavik. 

The J6n Sigur5sson Fund (Gj of Jons Sigurds sonar). A 
foundation for the endowment of historical, political, literary, 
and economic research. The original gift of Jon wSigurdsson 
amounted to 8,500 crowns, but has since considerably increased. 
The direction is invested in the governor-general, acting by 
and with the advice of the Althing — the committee of exami- 
nation being (1903): Dr. Bjorn M. Olsen; the Rev. Eirik- 
ur Briem; Magnus Stephensen. 

The Hannes Arnason Fund (Styrktarsjodur Hannesar 
Arnasonar), for the encouragement of philosophical study. The 
income is given every sixth year to maintain a travelling scholar- 
ship, tenable for 4 years, to be spent at the University of Co- 
penhagen and at some German University. Amount of fund 
1902, 53,056 crowns. The management is in the hands of the 
governor-general. Present stipendiary, Agust Bjarnason, M. A. 

The Jon Thorkelsson Fund (Thorkillii barnaskolasjodur) . 
A fund for the education of children in the old Kjalarnesthing 
(now the south-western county, known as Kjosarsysla). Origi- 
nally bequeathed by Jon Thorkelsson, rector of the Skalholt 
Cathedral school in 1728 — 37, it amounts at present to 73,449 
crowns. The control of it is exercised by the bishop of Iceland. 

Benediktsson, Einar; lawyer, poet, journalist; Reykjavik. 

Author of "Sogur og kvae9i" (1898); translator of Ibsen's "Per Gynt" (Petur 
Gautur; 1901); co-editor of "Utsyn" (1892), an anthology; formerly editor of 
the daily "Dagskra." 

Bjarnarson, the Rev. Thorhallur; lector of the Theological 
school; Reykjavik. 

Formerly editor of "Kirkjubla9i9," and translator of various theological tracts. 


Bjarnason, Bjorn, M. A.; philologist; IsafjorS.ur. 

Compiler af'Sagnakver" (1900); translator of C. Flammarion's "Urania" (1898) 
and of several tales. 

Bjarnason, Larus H.; prefect of Snaefellsnessysla, politician; 

Author of juridical and political essays. 

Bjarnason, Thorleifur; teacher at the College of Iceland; 

Co-editor of "Utsyn" (1902), and of "Donsk lestrarbok" (1895). 

Bjarnason, Torfi; agriculturist, school-director; Olafsdalur, 

Author of various treatises on agriculture and household economy. 

Bjarnhe5insd6ttir, Mrs. Bri'et; journalist; Reykjavik. 

Editor of "Kvennabla9i9" and of "BarnablaSid ;" author of a few pamphlets. 

Bjornsson, Dr. GuQmundur; docent at the Medical school; 

Formerly co-editor of "Eir" (a medical journal ); author of medical articles. 

Bjornsson, Oddur; publisher and printer; Akureyri. 

Publisher of the series, "Bokasafn al{)y3u." 

BorgfirSingur, Jon; bibliographer; Akureyri. 

Author of "Rithofundatal" (1884), a literary history of Iceland, and of "Prent- 
smiSjur og prentarar a Islandi" (1867), the story of printing in Iceland. 

Briem, Eirikur; writer; docent at the Theological school; 

Author and translator of virions educational works. 

Briem, Halldor; writer; teacher at the North-Icelandic High- 
school; Akureyri. 

Author of an English grammar and reader, and of a few plays. 

Briem, Pall; magistrate of the Northern and Eastern pro- 
vinces; Akureyri. 

Editor of the journal "Logfra^Qingur" ("The Jurist"). 

Briem, Sigurdur; postal director; Reykjavik. 

Editor of "P6stbla9i9." 

Briem, the Rev. Valdimar; hymnologist; Stori-Nupur, Ar- 

Author of many fine hymns in the church hymnbook, of "BibliuljoS" (2 vols. 
1896 — 97), and of other religious poems. 


Eggertsson, the Rev. Matthias; Midgardar, Grimsey. 

Author of unpublished papers on the manners and customs, population and 
statistics of Grinisey. 

Einarsson, Indri5i; dramatist, statistician; Reykjavik. 

Author of "Sver9 og bagall" (1899), and of other plays; compiler of the an- 
nual statistics of Iceland. 

Einarsson, Magnus; veterinarian; Reykjavik. 

Author of many papers on veterinary surgery. 

Erlingsson, Thorsteinn; poet, journaUst; Reykjavik. 

Author of "I^yrnar" (1897), a collection of poems, and of "Ruins of the 
Saga-time in Iceland" (1898), published by the English Viking Club. 

Eymundsson, Sigfus; publisher, photographer, bookseller; 

Finnbogason, Gu5mundur, M. A.; writer, educationalist; 


Author of "Lydmenntun" (1903). 

Fri5j6nsson, Gudmundur; poet; Sandur, Thingeyjarsysla. 

Author of a collection of verse, "Ur heimahogum" (1902). 

Gislason, Thorsteinn; poet, journaHst; Seydisfj oritur. 

Author of a collection of poems (1893); editor of "Bjarki." 

Grondal, Benedict; poet, naturalist; Reykjavik. 

Author of many poems ("Kvaedi," 1853 and 1900), essays and satires, includ- 
ing the "Heljarsl69arorusta" (2d ed., 1891); of works on geography, geology, 
mineralogy and zoology; translator of Homer's Iliad; editor of the annual "Gefn" 

GuSmundsson, the Rev. David; rural dean; Hof i Eyjafjor(^ur. 

Translator of Goldsmith's "Vicar of Wakefield" (1874). 

Gudmundsson, Guc3mundur; poet; Reykjavik. 

Author of many poetical productions ("LjoSmaeli," 1900). 

Gunnarsson, Tryggvi; president of the National Bank; 

Compiler of many financial reports. 

Haf stein, Hannes; poet; prefect of Isafjardarsysla; Isafjor^ur. 

Author of "Ljodmaeli" (1892). 

Hanriesson, Dr. GuSmundur; district-physician; Akureyri. 

Author of several articles on hygiene and medicine. 


Hansen, Morten; educationalist, director of the Common 
School; Reykjavik. 

Author of several elementary manuals for the lower schools, and of a small 
map of Iceland. 

Helgason, the Rev. Jon; docent at the Theological school; 

Editor of the religious journal, "Ver3i Ijos." 

HjaltaHn, Jon Andresson; rector of the North- Icelandic 
High-school; Akureyri. 

Author of an English grammar and reader, and of English-Icelandic and Ice- 
landic-English dictionaries ; translator of works by Swedenborg ; co-translator of 
"The Orkneyingasaga" (1873) into English. 

Hjorleifsson, Einar; novelist, journalist; Akureyri. 

Author of "Vonir" (1890), of several other novels, and of a collection of poems 
(1893); editor of the weekly "NorQurland." 

Holm, Mrs. Torfhildur; novehst; Reykjavik. 

Author of "Brynjolfur Sveinsson" (1882) and other historical romances; editor 
of various periodicals. 

Jensson, Bjorn; mathematician, astronomer; teacher in the 
College of Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Author of "StjornufraeSi" (1889), an astronomical manual. 

Jensson, Jon; one of the justices of the Supreme Court of 
Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Co-editor of a "Lagasafn handa alpydu" (4 vols., 1886 — 1900). 

Jochumsson, the Rev. Matthias; poet; Akureyri. 

Author of a great number of poems, a complete collection of which is now 
appearing (I. 1903); of dramas, the chief ones, perhaps, being "Utilegumenn- 
irnir" (1864) and "Jon Arason" (1900); translator of Shakespeare's "Romeo and 
Juliet" (1887), "Hamlet" (1878), "Othello" (1882) and "Macbeth" (1874), of By- 
ron's "Manfred" (1875), of Ibsen's "Brand" (1898), ofTegner's "Frithiofs saga" 
(2d ed., 1884), and of many other foreign poetical works. 

Jonassen, Jonas, M.D.; surgeon-general of Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Author of "Lsekningabok" (1886), and various hygienical and medical treatises. 

Jonasson, Hermann; agriculturist; Thingeyrar, Hunavatns- 

Author of many treatises on agriculture and household economy ; formerly 
editor of the periodical "BiinaSarrit." 


Jonasson, the Rev. Jonas; novelist; Hrafnagil, Eyjafjordur. 

Author of "RandiSur i HvassafelH" (1892) and other tales; compiler of a 
Danish-Icelandic dictionary (1895). 

Jonsson, Bjarni; poet, journalist; teacher at the College of 
Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Author of "Baldursbra" (1898), a collection of poems, and translator of a few 
foreign romances, 

Jonsson, Bjorn; journaHst; Reykjavik. 

Editor since 1874 of the journal "Isafold." 

Jonsson, Brynjolfur; poet, archeologist; Minni-Nupur, Ar- 

Author of many poems, and of several historical and archeolog^cal treatises 

Jonsson, the Rev. Janus; essayist; Hof 1 Onundarfjordur, 

Author of "Klaustur a Islandi" (1887) and of "Saga latinuskola a Islandi til 
1846" (1893), both in the "Timarit hins islenzka Bokmenntafelags," and of a 
few other papers. 

Jonsson, Jon; historian; Reykjavik. 

Author of ,,Islenzkt pjoQerni" (1903), and of other historical works. 

Jonsson, the Rev. Jon; historian, essayist; Stafafell, Skapta- 

Author of "Islenzk mannanofn" (1899), and of various historical writings. 

Jonsson, Klemens; prefect of Eyjafjardarsysla, speaker of 
the Lower House; Akureyri. 

Author of a few juridical essays. 

Jonsson, Kris tj an H.; journaHst; Isafjordur. 

Editor of the weekly "Vestri." 

J6nsson, Pall; naturalist, poet; Akureyri. 

Author of "Agrip af nattiirusogu" (1884), and of various poems; formerly 
editor of "Stefnir." 

Jonsson, P^tur; politician; Gautlond, SuQur-Thingeyjarsysla. 

Formerly editor of "Timarit kaupfelaganna." 

Josefs son, Skapti; journalist; Sey5isfjor5ur. 

Editor of the weekly "Austri." 

Kristjdnsson, Sigur5ur; publisher and bookseller; Reykjavik. 

Publisher, among other books, of a popular edition of the Icelandic Sagas. 


Magnusson, Dr. Gu5mundiir; surgeon, docent at the Medical 
School; Reykjavik. 

Author of various essays on surgery; formerly co-editor of "Eir." 

Magnusson, GuSmundur; poet; Reykjavik. 

Author of a volume of poems, "Heima og erlendis" (1899), and of an inedited 
dramatic piece, "Teitur." 

Magnusson, Jon; under-secretary for Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Co-editor of the 4th vol. of "Lagasafn handa alpydu" (1900), and author of 
a few juridical treatises; editor of the "Landshagsskyrslur." 

MelsteS, Hallgrimur; historian, bibliographer; director of 
the National Library; Reykjavik. 

Author of "Fornaldarsagan" (1900). 

Melsted, Pall; historian, lawyer, journahst; Reykjavik. 

Author of a series of volumes on universal history coming down to 1830, pub- 
lished between 1864 and 1887, and of "NorQurlandasaga" (1891); he has edited 
likewise several periodicals. 

Olafsson, the Rev. Arnljotur; political economist, politician; 
Sau^anes, Thingeyjarsysla. 

Author of "Audfraedi" (1880), and compiler of statistical works. 

Olafsson, Jon; bookseller, journalist, poet, politician; Reykjavik. 

Editor of a number of journals both in Canada and at home; author of^a vol- 
ume of verse (3 editions), and writer on politics, economy, bibliography and 
other topics. 

Olafsson, the Rev. Olafur: journaHst, educationalist; Reyk- 

Editor of "Fjallkonan;" translator and compiler of several popular works. 

Olafsson, Pall; poet; Lo5mundarfjordur. 

Author of "Lj69maeli" I. — II. (1899 — 1900), a collection of poetical pieces. 

01 sen. Dr. Bjorn Magnusson; philologist; rector of the 
College of Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Author of "Runerne i den old-islandske Litteratur" (1883), "Um Sturlungu" 
(1897 — 98), "Um Kristnitokuna a Islandi" (1900), and of many other most im- 
portant works and essays on Old-Northern and Icelandic literature and history. 

Ostlund, David; journalist, poet, publisher; Sey5isfjor5ur. 

Editor of the half-monthly "Frsekorn;" publisher of the Rev. Matthias Jochums- 
son's poetical works. A Norwegian by birth. 


Palsson, Pal mi; philologist; teacher at the College of Ice- 
land; Reykjavik. 

Editor of "Blomsturvalla saga" (1892) and of other texts; completed the Jon 
Sigur9sson and Svend Gnxndtvig collection of early Icelandic ballads, "Islenzk 
fornkvaedi" (2 vols., 1854 — 85); and author of divers treatises. 

P^tursson, Helgi; geologist; Reykjavik. 

Has written a considerable number of articles on the geology of Iceland, and 
on other subjects. 

Saemundsson, Bjarni; icthyologist; teacher at the College 
of Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Author of numerous papers on Icelandic fish and fisheries. 

Sigfusson, Johannes; teacher at the South-Icelandic High- 
school; Hafnarfjordur. 

Author and compiler of elementary manuals for use in common schools. For- 
merly editor of an educational periodical. 

Steinsson, FriSbjorn; publisher and bookseller; Akureyri. 
Stefansson, Jon; novelist; Arnarvatn, Thingeyjarsysla. 

Writes under the pseudonym of "Thorgils gjallandi;" author of "Upp til 
Qalla," (1902), and of other modern romances. 

Stefansson, Stefan; botanist; teacher at the North-Icelandic 
High-school; Akureyri. 

Author of "Flora Islands" (1901), and of many articles and essays on the 
botany of Iceland. 

Stephensen, Magnus; governor-general of Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Co-editor of a "Lagasafn handa al{)y9u" (svols., 1886- 90); author of "Log- 
fraeQingatal" (1882), and of a few historical articles. 

Sveinsson, the Rt. Rev. Hallgrimur; bishop of Iceland; 

Formerly edited a church periodical, "Kirkjuti9indi." 

Thorkelsson, Dr. Jon; philologist; formerly (1874— 1895) 
rector of the College of Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Author of a series of valuable lexicographical publications, entitled "Supple- 
ment til islandske Ordboger" (1876 — 99), and of many works on Old-Northern 
and Icelandic philology. 


Thorkelsson, Dr. Jon; philologist; archivist of the National 
Archives; Reykjavik. 

Author of "Digtningen paa Island i det 15 og 16 Aarhundrede" (1888), and 
other works relating especially to Icelandic poetry, biography and folklore ; editor 
of the "Diplomatariiim Islandicum" (II — VI), published by the Icelandic Literary 

Thorlaksson, Gudmundur, M. A.; philologist; Reykjavik. 

Author of "Udsigt over de norsk-islandske Skjalde" (1882); editor of several 
sagas and other texts. 

Thoroddsen, Skuli; lawyer, journalist, politician; BessastaQir. 

Editor of the newspaper "I^j69viljinn." 

Thorolfsson, SigurSur; agriculturist; Reykjavik. 

Editor of an agricultural monthly, "Plogur;" author of "Frumatridi jarSraekt- 
arfraeSinnar" (1901). 

Thorsteinsson, Arni; secretary of finance; speaker of the 
Upper House; Reykjavik. 

Author of a few works and essays on agriculture and fisheries. 

Thorsteinsson, the Rev. Bjarni; composer; Hvanneyri, 

Author of many musical compositions, a collection of which has been published, 
and editor of various melodies, written by others. 

Thorsteinsson, Hannes; journalist, genealogist, politician; 

Editor since 1892 of Iceland's oldest journal, "PjoQolfur;" author of essays 
on history and genealogy. 

Thorsteinsson, Steingrimur; poet; upper teacher at the 
College of Iceland; Reykjavik. 

Author of a great number of poems, of which two collections have appeared 
(1880, 1893); translator of "Arabian Nights" (1858 — 66), of Shakespeare's "King 
Lear" (1878), of Tegner's "Axel" (2d ed., 1902), and of many poetical pieces and 
other works, including the German Stoll's manual of Greek 'and Roman mytho- 
logy (1871). 

Zoega, Geir; philologist; teacher in the College of Iceland; 

Author of "Enskunamsbok" (2d ed., 1898); compiler of an English- Icelandic 
dictionary (1896), and now engaged upon an Icelandic-English one. 


5n S)enmarft» 


The Arna-Magnsean Commission (Det Arna-Magnceanske 
Legat; Arna-Magnussonar Nefndin). Founded by Arni Mag- 
nusson, born at Kvennabrekka, Iceland, Nov. 13, 1663, died 
at Copenhagen Jan. 7, 1730, for the conservation and publica- 
tion of the manuscript treasures collected by him in Iceland, 
by far the most important body of Old- Icelandic monuments in 
existence. Nothing was done by the Danish authorities, upon 
whom the duty rested, to carry out the provisions of the found- 
er's will until 30 years after his death (1760), and a further 
delay of twelve years occurred before the Commission was or- 
ganized (1772). Thus at last established, there were issued, 
under the auspices of the Commission, a series of old texts of 
great value in their day, many of which bore upon their title- 
pages, as editors and commentators the names of scholars from 
Iceland, but all of which owed their value chiefly to the learn- 
ing and labour of native Icelanders. On the death of Professor 
KonraS Gislason, born at Langamyri, Iceland, July 3, 1808, 
died at Copenhagen Jan.. 4, 1891, the Commission received by 
his will the sole addition to its fund, a sum of 20,000 crowns, 
the interest to be spent upon the publication of Old-Icelandic 
poetry. For the two stipends for life, respectively of 600 and 
400 crowns annually, as originally established (to be conferred 
on native Icelandic students proficient in the old language) 
has been recently (1890) substituted a single stipendium of 1000 
crowns, tenable for 2 years. As will be seen, this body is purely 
Icelandic by its founder, whose name it bears; by the large 
fund which he left it; and by what is more important the 
unique mass of manuscripts which he alone collected; by the 


regulations, which he estabUshed for the management of the 
one and the preservation of the other; by the only additional 
endowment, which it has received since his time; and by the 
editorship and comments of a majority of the texts which it 
has published. Considering these facts it may surprise the 
learned world to know that no native Icelandic scholar has, 
for many years, participated in its government. In this unfor- 
tunate condition of things, it is certainly gratifying to note 
that the Commission has not, so far as is known, failed to 
obey the stipulation, made by the founder, that the stipends 
provided by his fund should be conferred only upon his stu- 
dious countrymen. It is not to be contested that some of the 
non-Icelanders, like the present custodian of the manuscripts, 
have done work in connection with the Commission and its 
objects, worthy of high praise. — Chairman of the Commission : 
Dr. J. L. Ussing, (formerly professor of Greek and Latin, and 
editor of many wt>rks in or relating to those languages). The 
four other members of the Commission are Danish scholars of 
high repute, none of whom have visited Iceland. Acting 
Secretary, Dr Kristian Kaalund, keeper of the Arna- 
Magnaean collection, which consists of 3,000 MSS. and 
6,000 diplomas, all of which form a distinct department in the 
University Library at Copenhagen. Present Arna-Magnoean 
stipendiary, Bogi Thorarensen MelsteS, M.A. 

The Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries (Det kon- 
gelige danske Oldskrift-Selskab ; Hid konunglega norrcena forn- 
ritafelag). Established 1825 at the instigation of Professor Charles 
Christian Rafn, who remained until his death (1864) its secre- 
tary and its virtual director. Its statutes indicated as its first 
object "especially, by the publication and interpretation of 
Old-Icelandic writings and by any other steps which may serve 
that purpose to throw light upon the language, history and 
antiquities of the ancient North." With the liberal help of many 
erudite Icelanders (such aS Finnur Magnusson, Dr. Sveinbjorn 


— ^ ^ y ^^.:,fyy \ 

l\i;ilsson, Thorsteinn Helgason, Thorgeir Gudfnundsson, Jon 
Sigurdsson, Professor Konraci Gislason, Gisli Brynjulfsson, Hall- 
d6r Kristjdn Fridriksson — to enumerate only a few of them), 
numerous sagas were re-edited and translated into Latin and 
Danish, while two or three great series of periodicals, containing 
proceedings and papers, the "Nordisk Tidsskrift for Oldkyndig- 
hed," the "Annaler," "Aarboger" and "Memoires" were begun. 
But the distinguishing act of the Society, which gave it a world- 
wide reputation, was the issue of "Antiquitates Americanas"(i837), 
devoted to the ante-Columbian voyages of Icelanders and Nor- 
wegians to the coasts of North- America, which was followed by 
several supplements, and by another similar work of importance 
on the early Icelandic settlements in Greenland ("Gronlands hi- 
storiske Mindesmaerker," 3 vols., 1838 — 45), and "Antiquites 
Russes" (2 vols, 1850 — 52) concerning the relations of the early 
Scandinavians with the East. Icelandic aid continued to be libe- 
rally furnished to the Society in all these publications. After 
the death of its founder, the Society was re-organized (1865) 
and divided into two sections. Capital fund, 180,000 crowns. 
Scandinavian members, 350; foreign members, 1 50. — Secretary of 
the section for Old-Northern literature ^ Dr. KristianKaalund, 
(Arna-Magnasan custodian); Secretary of that for Northern 
antiquities, Dr. Sophus Miiller, director of the Old-Northern 
Museum, Copenhagen. 

Association for the Publication of Old-Northern Li- 
terature (Samfund til Udgivelse af gajnmel nordisk Literatur). 
Organized 1879 for the purpose "of publishing and elucidating 
the northern literary monuments of ancient times." This or- 
ganisation has issued a long and valuable series of Icelandic 
texts, besides many facsimiles of Icelandic codices. Members, 
217 (1901), annual dues, 5 crowns. — Chairman, Professor 
Dr. L. F. A. Wimmer; Secretary, Dr. Kristian Kaalund. 
Icelandic member of the board, Professor Dr. Finnurjonsson. 
Thorldkur Skulason's Fund (Skulasons Legal). A small 


but ancient foundation, established two hundred years since 
by the bishop of Holar in support (at Copenhagen University) of a 
student from the diocesan school. The scholarship is conferred 
for four years, the sum bestowed being about loo crowns. — 
Trustee '^1903) Professor Dr. Vilhelm Thomsen. 


Blondal, Sigfus, M. A.; assistant-librarian at the Royal 
Library; essayist, poet, bibliographer; Amagerbrogade 153, 

Translator of poems from the classical and modern languages ; author of "Alfred 
Tennyson" (1903) in the "Timarit hins islenzka Bokmenntafelags," and of many 
poems and articles, published in Icelandic and Danish periodicals. 

Brynj61fsson, Dr. Gisli; physician; Vesterbrogade 74, Copen- 

Author of "Um blodvatnslaekningar" in "EimreiQin" (1895). 

Einarsson, Sigfus; composer. Solvgade 2, Copenhagen. 

Author of "Islenzk songlog" (I. 1903). 

Finsen, Professor Dr. Niels R.; director of the Finsen Medical 
Light-Institute, Copenhagen; Rosenvasngets Hovedvej 37, 

Founder of the Institute for the cure of diseases by the operations of light; 
born i860 in the Faeroes, son of Hannes Finsen (a native of Iceland) ; prepared 
for the University at the College of Iceland, Reykjavik. 

GuSmundsson, Dr. Valtyr; docent (Icelandic history and 
literature) at the University, Copenhagen; writer, politician; 
Amagerbrogade 151, Copenhagen. 

Author of "Privatboligen paa Island i Sagatiden" (1889), and of "Islands Kultur 
ved Aarhundredskiftet 1900" (1902); editor of "Eimrei9in," a literary and po- 
litical magazine. 

Halldorsson, Ola fur; chief of Bureau, Icelandic ministry, 
Copenhagen; president of the Icelandic Literary Society, 
Copenhagen division; Kronprinsessegade 24, Copenhagen. 

Co-editor of "Lovsamling for Island," XX.— XXI. vol. (1887—89); now editing 
the old Icelandic law-code, "Jonsbok." 


Hermannsson, Halldor; writer, bibliographer; Sortedams- 
gade 21, Copenhagen. 

Editor of "I Uppnami," an Icelandic chess journal. 

Johnsen, Olafur; philologist, formerly teacher at the Cathedral- 
school, Odense; librarian of the Diocesan Library, Odense. 
J6nsson, Asgri'mur; painter; Copenhagen. 

Author of many oil-sketches of Icelandic scenery. 

J 6ns son, Bjarni; journalist, bibliographer; Ny Toldbodgade 
49, Copenhagen. 

Author of "Bokavlen paa Island i vaare dagar" (1903); contributor to Icelandic 
and Danish journals. 

Jonsson, Einar; sculptor; Vodrofsvej 2 C, Copenhagen. 

Formerly a student (holder of an Icelandic national stipend for art) at Rome ; 
author of the "UtilegumaSur" (The Outlaw), and of other sculptured works. 

Jonsson, Dr. Finnur; professor of Old- Northern literature at 
the University, Copenhagen; Nyvej 4, Copenhagen. 

Author of "Den oldnorske og oldislandske literatur historic" (3 vols., 1894 — 
1902), and of various other important works and essays; editor of a great number 
of critical editions of Old-Northern and Old-Icelandic sagas and other texts. 

Jonsson, Helgi; botanist, writer; Roskilde. 

Author of many treatises on Icelandic botany; has held stipends from the 
government and other bodies for botanical researches in Iceland. 

Melsted, Bogi Thorarensen, M. A.; historian, essayist, poli- 
tician; Ole Suhrsgade 14, Copenhagen. 

Author of a critical history of Iceland, "Islendinga saga" (now in progress), 
and of various historical and political essays; editor of "Synisbok islenzkra bok- 
mennta a 19. old" (1891); compiler of an annual Icelandic bibliography; contri- 
butor to Icelandic journals. 

P^tursson, the Rev. Hafsteinn; journalist; Fiolstrasde 28, 

Editor of "Tjaldbu3in" ("The Tabernacle"); author of several essays. 

Stefdnsson, Dr. J6n; translator, essayist; Aars, Jutland; 
resides for the greater part of the year in London (40 Upper 
Bedford Place, London W. C, England). 

Author of "Robert Browning" (1889), and of various essays; co-author of 
"A Pilgrimage to the Saga-steads of Iceland" (1898), and co-translator of "The 
life and xieath of Cormac the Skald" (1903). 


Sveinbjornsson, Sveinbjorn; teacher at the Cathedral-school, 

Contributor to foreign phonetic journals. 

Sveinsson, the Rev. Jon, S. J.; St. Andreas Kollegiet, Char- 

Author of "A chev'al a travers I'lslande" in the journal "Les Etudes," nos. 
6, 7, and of various other essays on Icelandic themes in foreign journals. 

Thoroddsen, Professor Dr. Thorvaldur; geographer, na- 
turahst; Rathsacksvej i, Copenhagen. 

Author of "LandfraeQissaga Islands" (I— IV, in progress), of a geological map 
of Iceland, of "Oversigt over de islandske Vulkaners Historic" (1882), and of 
very many other scientific works and essays ; contributor to geographical and 
other scientific journals of Denmark, Sweden, Germany and England; for 17 years 
conductor of the Icelandic government's geographical and geological survey; 
now engaged upon a detailed description of Iceland. 

5n Hmerica* 


Baldwinsson, Baldwin L; member of the Manitoba Par- 
liament; 219 Dermot Street, P. O. Box ii 6, Winnipeg, Ma- 
nitoba, Canada. 

Editor of the weekly "Heimskringla." 

Bardal, H. S.; bookseller; 557 Elgin Ave, Winnipeg, Ma- 
nitoba, Canada. 

Benediktsson, Kristjan Asgeir; poet, journalist; Corner 
of Toronto Street and EUis Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Author of many short tales and novels; contributor to various journals; writes 
usually under the pseudonym of "Snaer Snaeland." 

Benediktsson, Mrs. Margr^t J.; Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. 

Editor of the monthly "Freyja." 

Bergmann, the Rev. Fridrik J.; Gardar, Pembina Co., North 
Dakota, United States. 

Author of "Island um aldamotin" (1901), and of "Eina lifid" (1900); editor 
of the annual "Aldamot." 


Berg man n, J6nas S.; bookseller; Gardar, Pembina Co., 

North Dakota, United States. 
Bjarnason, the Rev. Jon; 704 Ross Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 


Author of "Predikanir" (1900) and of many essays and pamphlets; editor of 
"Sameiningin;" chief minister of the Icelandic Lutheran church in America. 

Bjarnason, Magnus; bookseller; Mountain, North Dakota, 

United States. 
Bjarnason, Johann Magnus; novelist; c/o the editor of 

"Heimskringla;" Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Author of the romance "Eirikur Hansson," of which 2 parts have appeared, 
and of several other productions. 

Brynjolfsson, Skapti; formerly member of the North Da- 
kota legislature; ^lo the editor of "Heimskringla," Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, Canada. 

Eyjolfsson, Gunnsteinn; novelist, composer ; Icelandic River, 
Manitoba, Canada. 

Author of "Eleonora" (1894) and of other novels, likewise of some musical 

Halld6rsson, Dr. M6ritz; Park River, North Dakota, Uni- 
ted States. 

Author of various essays on natural history, especially botany. 

Johannesson, SigurSur J6n; poet; c/^ the editor of "Log- 
berg," Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Author of two collection of poems, of which the second one ("Nokkur lj69- 
maeli og {)yddar sogur") was published in 1899. 

Johannesson, SigurSur Julius; poet, journalist; c/^ the edi- 
tor of "Heimskringla," Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Author of many poems, a collection of which is now appearing; formerly 
editor of several newspapers and contributor to various periodicals. 

Johnson, Thomas, H.; lawyer; c/^ the editor of "Logberg," 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 
Jonasson, Sigtryggur; journalist; c/othe editor of "Logberg," 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Formerly editor of "Logberg." 


J 6 n s s o n, the Rev. B j o r n B. ; Minneota, Minnesota, United States. 

Author of various treatises In Icelandic- American journals; co-editor of "Vinland." 

Jonsson, Dr. Kristjan; Corner 8th Avenue and 4th Street, 

Clinton, Iowa, United States. 
Jonsson, Ola fur; assistant-librarian at the Newberry Library. 

Chicago, United States. 
Paulsson, Magnus; the "Logberg" Printing and Publishing 

Co., P. O. Box 1282, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Editor of the weekly "Logberg." 

Skaptason, theRev. Magnus; c/o the editor of "Heimskringla," 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Formerly editor of the Unitarian paper "Dagsbriin;" author and translator of 
various works on Unitarianism. 

Stefa-nsson, Kristinn; poet; c/o the editor of "Heimskringla," 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Author of a collection of poems "Vestan hafs" (1900). 

Stefansson, Steingrimur; cataloguing department, Library 
of Congress, Washington D. C, United States. 

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur; journalist, poet; i6 Rowland Street, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. 

Stephansson, Stephan G.; poet; ^U the editor of "Heims- 
kringla," Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Author of two collections of poems, of which the later one ("A fer9 og flugi") 
was published in 1900. 

Thompson, G. M.; journalist; GimH, Manitoba, Canada. 

Editor of the monthly "Svava." 

Thorgrimsen, the Rev. Hans; Akra, North Dakota, United 

Thorlaksson, the Rev. N. Steingrimur; West Selkirk, Ma- 
nitoba, Canada. 

Author of various essays in Icelandic- American periodicals; editor of the 
journal "Kennarinn." 


jForeign JcelanMc Scbolars** 


Akerblom, Axel; teacher at the Gymnasium, Jonkoping, 

Translator of "Nordiska fornkvaden, 15 forsta sangerna af Wisen's Carmina 
norraena" (1899). 

Ambrosoli. Dr. Sol one; director of the Royal Cabinet of 
Coins, Brera, Milan, Italy. 

Compiler of a "Vocabolario italiano-islandese" (1882;; author of "Un poeta 
islandese" (Bjarni Thorarensen), in the "Illustrazione Italiana" (1893). 

Amira, Dr. Karl von; professor at the University, Munich; 
37 Mohlstrasse, Munich, Bavaria. 

Author of the section "Recht" in "Grundriss der germanischen Philologie" 
(2d ed. 1897), and of several essays. 

Anderson, Joseph, LL. D.; keeper of the Museum of An- 
tiquities, Edinburgh; 8 Great Queen Street, Edinburgh, 

Editor of the "Orkneyinga Saga" (1873). 

Anderson, Rasmus Bjorn; philologist; Madison, Wisconsin, 
United States. 

Author of "Norse Mythology" (1875), andj of "America not discovered by 
Columbus" (1874); translator of "Viking Tales of the North" .(1877), and of 
the "Younger Edda" (1880). 

Anderson, Tempest, M. D.,; 17 Stonegate, York, England. 

Author of "Volcanic studies in many lands" (1903), and of several articles 
on the volcanoes of Iceland. 

Arpi, Dr. Rolf; director of the Old-Northern Museum, Up- 
sala, Sweden. 

Author of "Afbildningar af foremal i Nordiska Museet — Island" (1888 — 1890) 
and of various treatises. 

* Including writers of travels in Iceland. 


Baasch, Dr. Ernst; librarian of the Library of Commerce, 
Hamburg; ^^ Hagenau, Hamburg, Germany. 

Author of "Die Islandsfahrt der Deutschen" (1889). 

B^§.th, Albert Ulrik; docent at the University, Gothenburg, 

Translator and compiler of "Karlek i hedna dagar" (Kormaks saga; 1884); 
"Kvadet om Skide" (1882); "Sagan om Gudrun" (Laxdaela; 1900); "Sagan om 
Grette den starke" (1901) etc. 

Backstrom, Dr. Helge; professor, Stockholms hogskola, 
Stockholm, Sweden. 

Author of "Beitrage zur Kenntniss der islandischen Liparite" (1892). 

Baring-Gould, the Rev. Sabine, M. A.; Lew-Trenchard 
House, North Devon, England. 

Author of "Iceland, its Scenes and Sagas" (1862), and of "The Icelander's 
Sword" (1893); translator of "Grettis saga" (1894). 

Bart els. Professor Dr. Max; ethnologist; Roonstrasse 7, Berlin, 

Author of "Islandischer Brauch und Volksglaube in Beziehung auf die Nach- 
kommenschaft" in the "Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic" (1900). 

Batjuschkow, Professor Feodor Dmitrijevich; 15 Liteiny 
Prospekt, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Translator of "Sago o Finnbogje Siljnom" (1885), the "Finnboga saga hins 
ramma" in Russian. 

Baumgartner, Alexander, S. J.; Bellevue, Luxemburg, Grand 
Duchy of Luxemburg. 

Author of "Island und die Faroer" (3d ed. 1903), 

Beauvois, Dr. Eugene; Corberon, pres Beaune, Cote d'Or, 

Author of many essays on the Icelandic discovery of America and on other 
Old-Northern themes. 

Bert els en. Dr. Henrik; teacher at the Cathedral-school, 
Aarhus, Denmark. 

Author of "Om Didrik of Berns sagas oprindelige skikkelse, omarbejdelse og 
handskrifter" (1902). 

Bisiker, William; Wadham College, Oxford, England. 

Author of "Across Iceland" (1902). 


Bjorkman, Erik; decent at the University, Upsala, Sweden. 

Author of "Scandinavian loan-words in middle English" (1900 — 02). 

Bley, Dr. Andreas; professor at the University, Ghent; 8 rue 
d'Egmont, Ghent, Belgium. 

Author of "Die Entstehung der jungeren Edda" in the "Zeitschrift fiir deutsche 
Philologie" (1900). 

Boer, Dr. Richard Constant; professor at the University, 
Amsterdam; Oosterpark 76, Amsterdam, Holland. 

Author of "De Studie van het oud-noorsch" (1894); editor of "Orvar-Odds 
saga" (1888) and "Grettis saga" (1900). 

Brandes, Professor Dr. Georg; aesthetist; 55 Havnegade, 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of essays on "Gestur Palsson" (1897), and on "Moderne islandsk Lyrik" 
(1900), both reprinted in his "Samlede Skrifter," vol. 3., and of a few other 
articles on Icelandic themes. 

Brandes, Dr. Edvard; Skjoldsgade 12, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of the play, "Asgerd" (1895), the subject and characters of which are 
taken from the Njals saga. 

Brate, Dr. Erik; teacher at the Sodermalm Gymnasium; 
1 1 Nytorgsgatan, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Author of "Fornnordisk metrik" (1898), and of various runological works. 

Brenner, Oskar; professor at the University, Wiirzburg; 
36 Sonderglacisstrasse, Wiirzburg, Bavaria. 

Author of "Uber die Kristnisaga" (1878), and of the "Altnordisches Hand- 
buch" (1882 — 96); editor of the "Speculum regale" (1881), and translator of 
Bugge's "Entstehung der nordischen Gottersage" (1899). 

Breon, Rene; membre de la Societe Geologique de France; 
conservateur de la Musee scientifique of Semur-en-Auxois, 
Cote d'Or, France. 

Author of "Notes pour servir a 1 'etude de la geologic de I'lslande et dcs lies 
Faroe" (1884). 

Bruun, Daniel; captain in the Danish army, archeologist ; 
Annasvej 16, Hellerup, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of "Fortidsminder og Nutidshjem paa Island" ^1897), "Nokkrar ey9i- 
byggdir i Arnesyslu, Skagafjar9ard6lum og BarSardal" (1898), and of many other 
works and essays. 


Bryce, the Rt. Hon. James, D. C. L., F. R. S., M. P.; 54 Port- 
land Place, London W, England. 

Author of "Primitive Iceland" in his "Studies in History and Jurisprudence" 
(1901), and of "Impressions of Iceland" in the "Cornhill Magazine" (1873), 
reprinted in "Littell's Living Age" (1873), the "Electric Magazine" (1874), and 

Bugge, Dr. Alexander; professor at the University, Christi- 
ania; Josefinegade lo, Christiania, Norway. 

Translator of "Udvalgte Sagaer" (1901). 

Bugge, Sophus; professor at the University, Christiania; 
Josefinegade lo, Christiania, Norway. 

Editor of the older Edda (1867) and many other Old-Northern works; author 
of "Studier over nordiske Gude- og Heltesagns Oprindelse" (1881, 1896), and of 
numerous other books and essays of high value. 

Cahnheim, Dr. Otto; Bismarckplatz 6 E, Dresden, Saxony. 

Author of "Zwei Sommerreisen in Island" (1894), and of other treatises. 

Caine, Thomas Henry Hall, M. P.; Grieba Castle, Isle of 
Man, England. 

Author of "The Bondman" (1890), a romance introducing Icelandic characters; 
he is now preparing a drama of which Iceland is to be the scene. 

Carpenter, Dr. William Henry; professor at the Columbia 
University; 253 W. loo th St., New York city. United States. 

Compiler of "Grundriss der neu-islandischen Grammatik" (1881); author of 
"Nikolasdrapa Halls prests, an Icelandic poem from A. D. 1400" ''1881), and 
of various papers treating Icelandic subjects. 

Cederschiold, Dr. Gustaf; professor at the University, 
Gothenburg, Sweden. 

Author of "Studier ofver islandska kyrkomaldagar fran fristatstiden" (1887) 
in "Aarb0ger for nordisk Oldkyndighed," and of "Kalfdrapet och Vanprofningen, 
ett bidrag till kritiken af de islanska sagornas trovardighet" (1890) and various 
other essays; editor of "Bandamannasaga" (1873), "Geisli" (1873), "Fornsogur 
Su9urlanda" (1884) and of other Icelandic texts. 

Chadwick, Henry Munro, M.A.; folk-lorist, writer; fellow 
of Clare College, Cambridge, England. 

Author of "The Cult of Othin, an essay in the ancient religion of the North" 
(1899), and of other essays on Old-Northern mythology. 


Chastang, Dr. Leon; professor at the Naval Medical School, 
Bordeaux, France. 

Author of "Note sur rextension de la tuberculose en Islande" (1898) in the 
"Archives de Medicine navale." 

Coles, John, F. R.A. S.; Lillovet, Lipphook, Hampshire, Eng- 

Author of "Summer Travelling in Iceland" (1882). 

Collingwood, William Gershom, M. A.; Lanehead, Conis- 
ton, Lancashire, England. 

Co-author of "A Pilgrimage to the Saga-steads of Iceland" (1898), and co- 
translator of "The Life and Death of Cormac the Skald" (1903). 

Craigie, W. A., M. A.; 226 Iffley Road, Oxford, England. 

Author of "Scandinavian Folklore" (1896), of "Gaelic words and names in 
the Icelandic sagas" in the "Zeitschrift fur celtische Philologie" (1897), and of 
numerous treatises. 

Dahlerup, Verner; docent at the University, Copenhagen; 
Ole Suhrsgade 16, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Editor of "Physiologus" (1889); co-editor (with Prof. Finnur Jonsson) of the 
first and second grammatical treatises of Snorra Edda (1886) and of a revised 
edition of N. M. Petersen's "Islaendernes Faerd hjemme og ude" (4vols„, 1901). 

Dareste, Dr. Rodolphe; member of the French Institute, 
conseiller a la Cour de Cassation; 9 quai Malaquais, Paris 
(VI), France. 

Translator of "La Saga de Nial" (1896). 

De Groote, Eugene; Houthulst (Clerken), Belgium. 

Author of "Island" (1889), a volume of travels. 

Detter, Dr. Ferdinand; professor at the German University, 
Prague; Salmgasse 7, Prague, Bohemia. 

Author of "Bemerkungen zu den Eddalieder" (1891), and of several treatises; 
editor of "Zwei Fornaldarsogur" (1881), of "Die Lausavisur der Egilssaga" (1898), 
and of "Voluspa" (1899); co-editor of "Saemundar Edda" (1903). 

Dodge, Daniel Kilham; professor at the University of 
Illinois; Urbana, Illinois, United States. 

Author of "On a verse in the old Norse 'Hofu91ausn' " in "Modern Lan- 
guage Notes" (vol. TIL). 

Duranti, Viscount William de; 17 rue Daubigny, Paris, 

Author of "Islandais" (1897) in the "Revue de Paris" (vol. III). 


Ehlers, Ed v., M. D.; Laxegade 6, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of numerous articles on leprosy in Iceland. 

Eichmiiller, Georges, M. D.; 3 rue des Tournelles, Arcueil 
(Seine), France. 

Author of "Notes sur la lepre en Islande" (1896), and of "La region du My- 
vatn en Islande" (1895). 

Elton, Oliver, M. A.; professor at the University College, 
Liverpool; 15 Partefield Road, Liverpool, England. 

Translator of Einar Hafli9ason's "Laurentius saga" (1890). 

Falk, Hjalmar Sejersted; professor at the University, Chri- 
stiania; Mariegade 6, Christiania, Norway. 

Author of "Om Svipdagsmal" (1893 — 94), and of other essays. 

Faraday, Miss Winifred; Ramsay Lodge, Burnage Lane, 
Sevenhulme near Manchester, England. 

Author of "The Divine Mythology of the North", of "The Heroic Mytho- 
logy of the North", and of "On the question of Irish influence on early Icelandic 
literature, illustrated from Irish MSS. in the Bodleian Library" (1900) in the 
"Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society." 

Feddersen, Arthur; Malmogade 3, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of "Paa islandsk Grund" (1885), of "Islandsk Kunstindustri" (1887), 
and of numerous articles on freshwater fisheries in Iceland. 

Feilberg, Peter Berendt; agriculturist; Soborg per Gille- 
leje, Denmark. 

Author of "Om Forholdene paa Island" (1878), of "Jordbund og Klima paa Is- 
land" (1881), and of several other essays. 

Finsen, Vilhelm Hannes; postmaster; Virginiavej 9, Copen- 
hagen, Denmark. 

Compiler of "Islenzkt baejatal" (1885). 

Fischer, Professor Joseph, S.J.; Pensionat Vorarlberg, Feld- 
kirch, Austria. 

Author of "Die Entdeckungen der Normannen in Amerika" (1902). 

Fiske, Willard; Florence, Italy. 

Compiler of "Bibliographical Notices" I, III, V (Books printed in Iceland 1586— 
1844, Supplement to the British Museum Catalogue; 1886— 1890), and of author 
many articles on Iceland and Icelandic subjects. 

Flensborg, C. E.; c/^ Hedeselskabet, Aarhus, Denmark. 

Author of articles on forestry in Iceland ("Skovrester og Nyanlaeg af Skovpaa 
Island," 1901 — 02). 


Fogh, Dr. F.; medical practitioner; Vordingborg, Denmark. 

Co-author of "Det danske Studentertog til Faeraerne og Island i Sommeren 
1900" (1902). 

Foulke, Miss Caroline Reeves-; Richmond, Indiana, United 

Foulon, Maurice; 192 rue de Trone, Brussels, Belgium. 

Author of "L'Islande" (1896), first published in the "Bulletin" of the Royal 
Belgian Geographical Society. 

Frey, Dr. Ewald; teacher (Luisenstadtische Oberrealschule); 
113 Dresdenerstrasse, Berlin, Prussia. 

Author of "Nordlsche Mythologie auf hoheren Schulen" (1902). 

Gebhardt, Dr. August; docent at the University, Erlangen; 
Hiibnersplatz 5, Niirnberg, Bavaria. 

Author of "Beitrage zur Bedeutungslehre der altwestnordischen Prapositionen" 
(1896); translator of Dr. Thoroddsen's "Geschichte der islandischen Geographic" 
(2vols., 1897 — 98). 

Gering, Dr. Hugo; professor at the University, Kiel, Germany. 

Editor of "Islandische Legenden, Novellen und Marchen" (2 vols., 1882—84), 
of "Bandamannasaga" (1879), and other sagas; compiler of "Glossar zu den 
Liedern der Edda" (2d ed., 1895), of which work he has published a metrical 
translation (1892). 

Giquello, the abbe Pierre; 2 rue des UrsuHnes, Tours, France. 

Author of "En Islande. Notes et impressions" (1897) in "Le Correspondent" 
(three articles). 

Gjellerup, Karl; poet: 31 Schumannstrasse, Dresden/ Saxony. 

Translator of "Den aeldre Edda" into Danish (1895). 

Gjessing, Gustav Antonio; rector of the Gymnasium, 
Arendal, Norway. 

Translator of the poetic Edda (two different versions, 1866 and 1899); editor 
of Arngrimur Jonsson's Latin translation of "Jomsvikinga saga" (1877); author 
of various essays. 

Go del. Dr. Vilhelm; 30 Kommendorsgatan, Stockholm, 

Author of "Fornnorsk-islandsk litteratur i Sverige" (I, 1897); compiler of 
a "Katalog ofverKongl. Bibliotekets fomislandiska och fornnordiska handskrifter" 

Gollancz, Israel; 54 Sidney Street, Cambridge, England. 

Editor of "Hamlet in Iceland" (1898), being the Icelandic Ambales saga. 


Golther, Dr. Wolfgang; professor at the University, Rostock; 
St. Georgstrasse i a, Rostock, Mecklenburg, Germany. 

Editor of "Ares Islendingabok" (1892); author of "Handbuch der german- 
ischen Mythologie" (1895). 

Goodrich -Frear, Miss Ada; c/^ British Consul, Jerusalem, 

Author of "The Norsemen in the Hebrides" (1898), published by the Viking Club. 

Gosse, Edmund, LL, D.; 17 Hannover Terrace, Regent's 

Park, London, N. W., England. 
Gran, Gerhard; docent at the University, Christiania; Bestum 

per Christiania, Norway. 

Translator of "Vore faedres liv" (2d ed., 1898), being a collection of extracts 
from many Icelandic sagas. 

Green, the Rev. William Charles, M. A.; late fellow of King's 
College, Cambridge; rector of Hepworth, Suffolk, England. 

Translator of "The Story of Egil Skallagrimsson" (1853); author of several 
papers published in the "Saga-Book" and in the "Antiquary." 

Grossman n, Karl A., M. D.; 70 Rodney Street, Liverpool, 

Author of essays on the geology of Iceland. 

Groth, Dr. Peter; New York Insurance Company's Head- 
Office, New York city. United States. 

Editor of "Det Arnamagnaeanske haandskrift i 310 quarto. Saga Olafs konungs 
Tryggvasonar er ritaSi Oddur muncr" (1895). 

Haggard, Henry Rider; Ditchingham House, Norfolk, 

Author of "Eric Brighteyes" (1891), the scene of which is laid in Iceland. 

Hammerich, Dr. Angul; docent at the University, Copen- 
hagen; Steen Blichers Vej i8, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of "Studier over islandsk Musik" (1899) in "Aarbeger for nordisk 
Oldkyndighed og Historic." 

Hansen, Olaf, M. A.; Vendersgade i8, Copenhagen, Den- 

Author of "Ny-islandsk Lyrik" (1901), and translator of many poems from the 


Hart, Dr. James Morgan; professor at the Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York, United States. 

Author of a review of Noreen's "Grammatik" (1884) in "Modern Language 
Notes" (1887). 

Heinz el, Dr. Richard; professor at the University, Vienna; 
Kirchengasse 3, Vienna W., Austria. 

Co-editor of "Saemundar Edda" (1903). 

Hell and, Dr. Amund; professor at the University, Christi- 
ania; Josefinegade 13, Christiania, Norway. 

Author of several articles on the geology of Iceland ; translator of Professor 
Thoroddsen's "Islands beskrivelse" (1883). 

Henning, Dr. Rudolf; professor at the University, Strassburg; 
Ohmachtstrasse 3, Strassburg, Germany. 

Co-author (with the late Dr. J. HofFory) of "Zur Textkritik der Islendingabok" in 
"Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alterthum" (1882) ; author of several runological works. 

Henzen, Dr. Wilhelm; dramatic writer, essayist; Mockernsche 
Strasse 36 E, Leipsic-Gohlis, Saxony. 

Author of "Uber die Traume in der Sagalitteratur" (1890), and of "Islandisch 
Blut" (1903), a drama, of which the scene is laid to Iceland between the years 
997 and looi. 

Hermann, Professor Dr. Paul; gymnasial upper master; 
Torgau, Prussia. 

Author of "Studien iiber das Stockholmer Homilienbuch" (1888), of "Nordische 
Mythologie in gemeinverstandlicher Darstellung" (1903), and of other works 
and essays. 

Hertzberg, Dr. Ebbe; bank-director; formerly professor at 
the University of Christiania; Munkedamsvejen 44, Christi- 
ania, Norway. 

Compiler of the glossary to "Norges gamle Love" (1895), in which are' em- 
bodied a few of the Icelandic law-codes. 

Heusler, Dr. Andreas; professor at the University, Berlin; 
Schonebergerufer 41, Berlin, Germany. 

Editor of "Zwei Islander-Geschichten (1897), of "Die Lieder der Liicke im 
Codex Regius der Edda" (1902); translator of "Die Geschichte vom Hiihner- 
Thorir" (1900); co-editor of "Eddica minora" (1903). 


Hildebrand, Hans Olof Hildebrand; director of the Na- 
tional Historical Museum, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Author of "Lifvet pa Island under sagatiden" (2d ed., 1883), and of numerous 
other works and essays. 

Hill, Arthur William, M. A.; King's College, Cambridge, 

Author of the "Botany" (1902) of Bisiker's "Across Iceland." 

Hoff, Bartholomasus; rector of Soro Akademy; Soro, Den- 

Author of "Hovedpunkter af den old-islandske lltteraturhistorie" (2d ed., 1875) ; 
co-editor of "Old-islandske laesestykker" (1877). 

Holthausen, Dr. Ferdinand; professor at the University, 
Kiel; no Holtenauerstrasse, Kiel, Germany. 

Author of "Studien zu Thidrekssaga" (1884); compiler of "Altislandisches 
Elementarbuch" (1895), and of "Lesebuch" (1896). 

Horsford, Miss Cornelia; archeologist ; 27 Craigie Street, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. 

Author of "Dwellings of the Sagatime in Iceland, Greenland and Vinland" 
in "National Geographical Magazine" (1898), of "Graves of the Northmen" 
(1893), and of several other essays. 

Howard, Newman; Trem Agon, Aberdovey, Wales. 

Author of "Kiartan the Icelander" (1901), a tragedy. 

Hull, Miss Eleanor; 14 Stanley Gardens, Kensington, 
London W., England. 

Author of "Irish Episodes in Icelandic Literature" (1903) in the "Saga-Book" 
of the Viking Club. 

Janson, Kristofer; poet; Ullevolsveien 65, Christiania, 

Author of the tragedy, "Jon Arason" (1867), and of a narrative of his jour- 
ney in Iceland, "Fraa Island" (1874). 

Jerrold, Mrs. Clare (Clare Armstrong Bridgman); Jessamine 
Cottage, Hampton-on-Thames, England. 

Author of "The Baldur Myth" (1902) in the Viking Club "Saga-Book" (vol. III). 

Jiriczek, Dr. Otto; professor at the University, Breslau, Prussia. 

Author of "Die Amlethsaga auf Island" (1895); editor of "Bosasaga" (1893) 
and of "Bosarimur" (1894). 


Johnston, Alfred Wintle, F. S. A. Scot.; 36 Margaretta 
Terrace, Chelsea, London. 

Author of "The Round Church and Earl's Bii of Orphir, Orkney" (1903), 
with many references to the "Orkneyinga saga" and other Icelandic sources. 

Jordan, Dr. Wilhelm; poet; Taunusplatz 20, Frankfurt am 
Main, Germany. 

Translator of the poetic Edda (1889). 

Kaalund, Dr. Kristian; keeper of the Arna-Magnsean collec- 
tion. University Library, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of "Historisk-topografisk Beskrivelse af Island" (2 vols., 1877 — 1879), 
and of many other works and essays; compiler of "Katalog over den Arna- 
Magnaeanske Haandskriftsamling" (2 vols., 1888 — 94), and of "Katalog over is- 
landske Haandskrifter i det store kongelige Bibliotek" (1900); editor of various 
Icelandic texts. 

Kahle, Dr. Bernhard; professor at the University, Heidelberg, 

Compiler of an "Altislandischcs Elementarbuch" (1900); author of "Die Sprache 
der Skalden" (1892), of "Islandische geistliche Dichtung des ausgehenden Mit- 
telalters" (1898), of "Ein Sommerfahrt auf Island" (1900), and of "Ort der Hoch- 
zeit auf Island zur Sagazeit" in "Die Zeitschrift des Vereins fiir Volkerkunde" (1901). 

Karsten, Torsten Evert; docent at the University, Helsing- 
fors, Finland. 

Author of "Studier ofver de nordiska sprakens primara nominalbildung" (2 vols. 
1896 — 1900). 

Kastmann, kanslir^det Carl; Sibyllegatan 43 & 45, Stockholm, 

Compiler of "Island, land och folk" (1903). 

Kauffmann, Dr. Friedrich; professor at the University, 
Kiel, Germany. 

Author of "Balder, Mythus und Sage" (1902), and of "Deutsche Mythologie" 
(latest ed. 1900), which has been translated into English by E. Steale Smith, 
lecturer at the Newnham College, Cambridge, under the title, "Northern Mytho- 
logy" (1903). 

Keary, Charles Francis; novelist, historian; 5 Montpeher 
Square, London, England. 

Author of "Mythology of the Eddas" (1882), and of "The Vikings of Western 
Christendom" (1890). 


Keilhack, Dr. Konrad; professor at the Mining Academy, 
Berlin; Witmersdorf, Bingerstrasse 59, Villa Gliickauf, Ber- 
lin, Germany. 

Author of "Beitrage zur Geologic der Insel Island" (1886), and of other works 
and essays. 

Ker, William Pat on, M. A.; professor at the University, 
London; 95 Cower Street, London W. C, England. 

Author of "Epic and Romance : Medieval Literature" (1896). 

Khull, Professor Dr. Ferdinand; Wielandsgasse 2, Gratz, 

Translator of "Geschichte des Skalden Egil Skallagrimsson" (1888), of "Viga 
Glum" (1888), of "Hoskuld Kollsohn" (1895), of "Viglund und Ketilrid" (1889), 
of "Gisli der Verdachtiger" (1893) and of several other sagas. 

Klostermann, August; professor at the University, Kiel, 

Author of "Deuteronomlum und Gragas" (1890). 

Kock, Dr. Axel; philologist; Lund, Sweden. 

Author of a great number of most valuable essays and articles on Old-Northern 
philology, published in various periodicals, but especially in "Arkiv for nordisk 
filologi," of which he is the chief-editor. 

Kock, Dr. Ernst Albin; docent at the University, Lund, 

Author of "Kort islandsk grammatik jamte en inledande ofversikt bfver de 
nordiska sprakens forhistoria" (1898). 

Koudelka, the Rev. Alois; Nikolcic, Moravia, Austria. 

Writes under the pseudonym of "O. S. Vetti ; " translator of two novels of Gestur 
Palsson ("Dwe islandske providky napsal Gestur Palsson," 1898), and author 
of an essay on Icelandic literature in the review ,,Hlidka" (Briinn). 

Krabbe, Dr. Harald; formerly professor at the Royal Vete- 
rinary High-school, Copenhagen; Monradsvej 19, Copenha- 
gen, Denmark. 

Author of a great number of essays on the zoology of Iceland, on domestic 
animals, and on intestinal worms. 

Krag, Vilhelm; poet; Christianssand, Norway. 

Author of several articles on Icelandic themes in the Christiania paper "Mor- 
genbladet" (1903). 


Kralik von Meyerswalden, Dr. Richard; poet; Hasen- 
auerstrasse 20, Vienna XIX, Austria. 

Author of "Das deutsche Gotter- und Heldenbuch" (2 vols. 1903, vols. Ill— VI 
being in the press; legends in verse drawn in considerable part from the Old- 
Northern writings), and of "Altnordische Dichtkunst" I. II. in "Die Kultur" 

(1901 — 1902). 

Krticzka, Freiherr von Jaden, Dr. Hans; KornenlDurg bei 
Donau, Austria. 

Author of "Islands Frauen und ihr Antheil an der heimischen Kultur und 
Litteratur" (1902). 

Kriiger, Dr. August Geo rg; upper teacher; Kurfiirstenplatz4o, 
Frankfurt a. M., Prussia. 

Author of "Eine angebliche islandische Bearbeitung der Schwanenrittersage" 
(1897) in the "Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen." 

Kiichler, Karl; master at the Gymnasium, Varel a. d. Jade, 
Oldenburg, Germany. 

Author of "Geschichte der islandischen Dichtung 1800— 1900" (2 vols., 1896 — 
1903), and translator of Gestur Palsson's and other Icelandic novels. 

Labonne, Dr. Henri; 15 rue de Medicis, Paris, France. 

Author of "L'Islande et I'Archipel de Faerseer" (1888), and of several papers. 

Larsson, Dr. Ludvig; teacher at the Gymnasium, Wexio, 

Compiler of "Ordforradet i de alsta islanska handskrifterna" (1891) ; editor 
of "Sagan och rimorna om FriSpjofr hinn fraekni" (1893); author of numerous 

Leclercq, Jules; judge, geographer; late President of the 
Royal Belgian Geographical Society; 89 rue de la Loi, 
Brussels, Belgium. 

Author of "La Terre de Glace, Feroe, Islande" (1883, since often republished), 
and of various papers relating to Iceland in the "Revue Britannique." 

Lehmann, Dr. Karl; professor at the University, Rostock, 
Mecklenburg, Germany. 

Author of "Der Konigsfriede der Nordgermanen" (1886; "Die islandische 
Bezirksacht [heradssekt] " fills pp. 247—284), and of various treatises on Old- 
Northern law. 


Lehmann-Filhes, Miss Margarethe; Wichmannstrasse 1 1 A, 
Berlin W. 62, or Villa Filhes, Arnstadt, Thiiringen, Germany. 

Translator of "Islandische Volksagen aiis der Sammlung von Jon Arnason" 
(2 vols., 1888 — 91), and of various papers by Professor Thoroddsen ; compiler of 
"Proben islandischer Lyrik" (1894); author of many essays and articles oh Ice- 
landic themes. 

Leith, Mrs. Disney; Westhall, Oyne, Scotland N. B. 

Author of "Three Visits to Iceland" (1897), and translator of "Stories of the 
Bishops of Iceland" (1895). 

Lenk, Heinrich von; custos at the Imperial Library (Hof- 
bibliothek), Vienna; io8 Penzingerstrasse, Vienna XIII, 

Translator of "Saga von Hrafnkell Freysgodi" (1883), and of "Vatnsdala 
saga" (1893), and of other Icelandic pieces. 

Leyen, Dr. Friedrich von der;. docent at the University, 
Munich; 26 Kaulbachstrasse, Munich, Bavaria. 

Author of "Das Marchen in der Gottersagen der Edda" (1899). 

Leysbeth, Nicolas; address, c/o J. Lebegue & Co., 46 rue 
de la Madeleine, Brussels, Belgium. 

Author of "Voyage en Islande et aux Fseroeer" (1897). 

McCormick, the Rev. William Thomas; Airmount, Knole 
Road, Bournemouth, England. 

Author of "A Ride across Iceland" (1892). 

Major, Albany Featherstonehaugh; Honorary Secretary 
of the Viking Club ; Bifrost, 30 The Waldrons, Croydon, 

Author of "Sagas and Songs of the Norsemen" (1894), and co-editor of 
"Stories from the Northern Sagas" (1899). 

Magnus son, Eirikr, M. A.; librarian at the University Li- 
brary, Cambridge; 31 Bateman Street, Cambridge, England. 

Editor and translator of "Thomas saga erkibiskups" (2 vols., 1875 — 1883), of 
"Lilja" (1870); co-translator (with William Morris) of the "Saga Library" (5 vols., 
1890—95); author of various essays on philological and financial matters. He 
is a native of Iceland. 

Meignan, Victor; writer and traveller; 54 quai Debilly, Paris, 

Author of "A travers le monde. Pauvre Islande" (1889). 


Meissner, Dr. Rudolf; professor at the University, Gottingen, 

Author of "Die Strengleikar ; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der altnordischen 
Prosalitteratur" (1902), and editor of "Bref Geirs biskups Vidalins 1809" (1903) 
in "Eimreidin." 

Meltzl, Hug6; professor at the University, Klausenburg, 

Author of "Az Atlamaal a comjelente" in "Acta comparat. liter, universarum" 
VIII. no. 79, 80 (1881). 

Metelka, Professor Dr. Jindrich; Konigl. Weinberg 146, 
Prague, Bohemia. 

Author of "O nesnamen dosud vydani mapy Islandu Olaa Magna z Roku 
1548" (1895). 

Meyer, Dr. Elard Hugo; professor at the University, Frei- 
burg i. Br., Baden. 

Author of "Mythologie der Germanen" (1903), and of a work on "Voluspa." 

Moffat, Alexander G., M.A.; 3 Southville, Swansea, England. 

Author of "Norse place names in Gower (Glamorganshire)" (1898), published 
by the Viking Club. 

Mogk, Eugen; professor at the University, Leipsic; Farber- 
strasse 15, Leipsic, Saxony. 

Author of "Untersuchungen iiber die Gylfaginning," of "Kelten und Nordger- 
manen im 9. und 10. Jahrhundert" (1896), of "Die islandische und norwegische 
Litteratur" (1903), of "Island und seine Litteratur" in the "Blatter fur litterarische 
Unterhaltung" (1898), and of many other essays; co-editor of "Altnordische 
Sagabibliothek" (now in progress). 

Mylius-Erichsen, L.; journalist; Bodenhoff Plads 10, Copen- 
hagen, Denmark. 

Co-author of "Det danske Studentertog til Faereerne og Island i Sommeren 
1900" (1902). 

Newton, Alfred, F. R. S.; professor, Magdalen College, 
Cambridge, England. 

Author of "The Ornithology of Iceland" (1868). 

Niedner, Professor Dr. Felix; teacher at the Friedrichs Gym- 
nasium, Berlin; 99 Charlottenstrasse, Beriin, S. W., Prussia. 

Author of "Zur Liederedda" (1896), and of "Das Harbar9slj69" in "Zeit- 
schrift fiir deutsches Alterthum" (vol. 19). 


Nilss on, Victor; ^U University Registrar, Minneapolis, Minne- 
sota, United States. 

Author of "Loddfafnismal, an Eddie study" (1898). 

Nordenstreng, Rolf, philologist; Upsala, Sweden. 

Author of numerous artieles on Icelandic subjects. 

Noreen, Dr. Adolf Gotthard; professor at the University of 
Upsala, Sweden. 

Author of "Altislandische und altnorwegische Grammatik" (2d ed., 1892) and 
of "Geschichte der nordischen Sprachen" (1901), and of many essays. 

Norris, Frederick Thomas; journalist; Park House, 21 
Aubert Park, Highbury, London N., England. 

Co-editor of "Ruins of the Saga Time in Iceland by I^orsteinn Erlingsson" (1898). 

Nygaard, Marius; rector of the Gymnasium, Drammen, 

Compiler of an "Oldnorsk Grammatik" (2d ed,, 1883), of "Udvalg af den 
norrone Literatur" (4th ed., 1894), and of "Oldnorsk Laesebog" (3d ed, 1891); 
author of "Eddasprogets Syntax" (1865 — 67), and of various essays. 

Olmer, Dr. Emil; philologist; Gothenburg, Sweden. 

Author of "Boksamlingar pa Island 11 79 — 1490" (1902). 

Olrik, Dr. Axel; docent at the University, Copenhagen; GL 
Kongevej 174, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Editor of "Skjoldungasaga i Arngrim Jonssons Udtog" (1895); author of many 

Omont, H.; keeper of the manuscripts in the BibHoth^que 
Nationale, Paris, France. 

Published, under the pseudonym of "Olaf Skaebne," a "Catalogue des manu- 
scrits danois, islandaise, norvegiens et suedois de la Bibliotheque Nationale de 
Paris" (Skalholt = Angers 1887). 

Ostenfeld, Carl Emil; naturahst; Carl Bernhards Vej 12, 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of "Skildringer af Vegetationer i Island" (1899), and of other papers. 

Oswald, Miss. Elizabeth].; address, c/o WiUiam Blackwood 
& Sons, Publishers, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Author of "By Fell and Fjord" (1882), a volume of travels. 


Overland, Ole Andreas; historian; Pilestraede 49, Christiania, 

Translator of various Icelandic sagas, such as "Vopnfirdinga saga" (1897), 
"I>orsteins {)attr stangarhoggs" (1896), "Hrafnkels saga Freysgo9a" (1895), and 

Palleske, Richard; master at the Gymnasium, Landeshut, 
Silesia, Prussia. 

Translator of Dr. Valtyr Gu9mundsson's "Fortschritte Islands im 19. Jahr- 
hundert" (1902); has in press a version of the same writer's book on Icelandic 
civilization at the commencement of the 20th century. 

Passy, Paul; professor at the Sorbonne, Paris, France. 

Author of "De Nordica lingua qvantum in Islandia ab antiqvissimis tempo- 
ribus mutata sit" (1891). 

Paul, Dr. Hermann; professor at the University, Munich, 

Author of "Die PiSreks saga und das Niebelungenlied" (1900); editor of 
"Grundriss der germanischen Philologie." 

Petersen s, Carl af; librarian of the University Library, Lund, 

Editor of two variations of the "Jomsvikinga saga" (1879 and 1882). 

Philpin de Riviere, the Rev. Father Felix; priest of the 
Oratory, South Kensington, London, England. 

Author of "Le chantre de Lilja, Eystein Asgrimsson" (1883), with a French 
translation and the original text. 

Pilet, Dr. Raymond; 2 rue Nationale, Rennes, Ille-et Vilaine, 

Author of "Rapport sur une mission en Islande et aux iles Feroe" (1897). 

Pitt, Ruth J. (Mrs. Walter Pitt); Lansdown Grove Lodge, 
Bath, England. 

Author of "The Tragedy of the Norse Gods" (1893). 

Poestion, Joseph Calasanz; Regierungsrat, librarian at 
the Ministry of the Interior, Vienna; 24 Wickenburggasse, 
Vienna, Austria. 

Author of "Island, das Land und seine Bewohner" (1885), of "Einleitung 
zum studium des Altnordischen" (1887), and of "Islandische Dichter der Neuzeit" 
(1897) ; translator of many Icelandic prose works, novels and poems. 


Powell, Frederick York; Regius professor of history ; Oriel 
College, Oxford, England. 

Author of the article "Iceland" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1881) ; co-author 
(with Dr. Gu9brand Vigfusson) of "An Icelandic Prose Reader" (1879), ^"^ ^O' 
editor (with the same scholar) of the "Corpus poeticum boreale" (2 vols., 1883) etc. 

Press, Mrs. Muriel Annie Caroline; 14 Westbury Park, 
Bristol, England. 

Translator of "The Story of the Laxdalers" (1899). 

Primer, Sylvester; professor at the University of Texas; 
Austin, Texas, United States. 

Author of "On the Consonant declension In Oldnorse" in "American Journal 
of Philology" (1881). 

Prytz, Carl Vilhelm; professor at the Royal Veterinary 
High-school, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Is now engaged upon a work on forestry in Iceland. 

Pudor, Heinrich; writer ; Winterfeldtstrasse 25, Berlin, Prussia. 

Author of "Neuislandische dramatische Litteratur" in the "Beilage zur Allge- 
meinen Zeitung" no. 25 (1902), of "Unterrichtswesen auf Island" in the "Central- 
blatt fiir Volksbildungswesen" (1902), and of other articles on Icelandic subjects. 

Rabot, Charles; 9 rue Edouard Detaille, Paris, France. 

Author of several articles on the geography of Iceland. 

Ranisch, Dr. Wilhelm; gymnasial upper teacher; Moltke- 
strasse 6, Osnabriick, Prussia. 

Editor of "Volsunga-saga" (1891), of "Gautrekssaga" (1900); co-editor of 
"Eddica minora" (1903); author of "Zur Kritik und Metrik der HamSismal" 
(1888); translator of "Eddalieder mit Grammatik" (1903). 

Riemschneider, Dr. J.; ornithologist; Ringen, Livonia, Russia. 

Author of "Reise nach Island und 14 Tage am Myvatn (Juni and Juli 1895); 
ornithologische Skizze" in the "Ornithologische Monatsschrift" (1896, four 
articles), and of other papers in the same journal. 

Rittershaus, Mrs. Dr. Adeline; docent at the University, 
Zurich; Zollikofferstrasse 200, Ziirich, Switzerland. 

Author of "Die neuislandischen Volksmarchen" (1902), of which a second 
part is in preparation, and of "Eine Fahrt nach Island" ("Kolnische Zeitung" 
1899, nos. 682, 691, 699). 

Rolfs en, Nordahl; writer; Neuberggaden i, Christiania, 

Editor of "Vore faedres liv" (2d ed., 1898), translated by G. Gran. 


Rostrup, Emil; professor at the Royal Veterinary High-school, 
Copenhagen; Forhaabningsholms AUe 7, Copenhagen, Den- 

Author of "Islands Svampe" (1903), and of other articles on the same subject. 

Rudolph, August; formerly captain in the German army; 
Baren-Allee 47, Wandsbek, Prussia. 

Author of "Edda, Runen und germanische Urwalde" (1898); writes under 
the pseudonym of "Adalbert Rudolf." 

Rung, Frederik; orchestral director at the Royal Theatre, 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of "Ny-islandsk Lyrik, 10 Kompositioner" (1902). 

Ryder, Carl Hartvig; captain in the Danish navy; Hare- 
gade I, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of "Isforholdene i Nordhavet 1877—92" (1896), and of other treatises ; 
promotor of forestry in Iceland. 

Sars, Dr. Johann Ernst; professor at the University, Christia- 
nia, Norway. 

Author of "Udsigt over den norske historic" (4 vols.), in the two first volumes 
(1877) of which there are two sections (about 100 pp.) on the history and insti- 
tutions of the Icelandic republic. 

Schierbeck, Dr. Georg; Jaegersborg Alle 70, Charlottenlund, 

Author of various essays on horticulture in Iceland based on his own exper- 

Schjott, Stener; te.acher at the Gymnasium, Skien; present 
address, 48 Prof. Dahlsgade, Christiania, Norway. 

Translator of Snorri Sturluson's "Heimskringla" ("Kongesagaer," 1900) into 
the Norwegian popular dialect. 

Schonfeld, Professor Dr. E. Dagobert; Villa Costenoble, 
Grietgasse 11, Jena, Saxe Weimar, Germany. 

Author of "Das Pferd im Dienste des Islanders zur Sagazeit" (1900), of "Der 
islandische Bauernhof und sein Betrieb zur Sagazeit" (1902), and translator of 
the Grettis saga (1896). 

Schumann, Dr. Oskar; school director; Freiberg, Saxony. 

Author of "Islands Siedelungsgebiete wahrend der Landnamatid" (1899). 

Scott, Douglas Hill; 8 Commercial Street, Leith, Scotland. | 

Author of "Sportman's and Tourist's Guide in Iceland" (1899). I 


Sephton, the Rev. John; lecturer in Icelandic at the University 
College, Liverpool; 90 Huskisson Street, Liverpool, England. 

Translator of the "Saga of King Sverri of Norway" (1899) and of the "Saga 
of King Olaf Tryggwason" (1895). 

Sievers, Dr. Eduard; professor at the University, Leipsic; Po- 
litzgasse 26, Leipsic-Gohlis, Saxony. 

Author of "Beitrage zur Skaldenmetrik" (1879), of "Altgermanische Metrik" 
(1892), of "Proben einer metrischen Herstellung der Eddalieder" (1885), and of 
many other works. 

Skeat, the Rev. WalterWilliam; professor at the University, 
Cambridge; 2 Salisbury Villas, Cambridge, England. 

Author of "A list of English words, the Etymology of which is illustrated by 
comparison with Icelandic" (1896). 

Slater, the Rev. Henry H., M. A., F. Z. S.; Thornhough 
Rectory, Wansford, Northamptonshire, England. 

Author of "Manual of the birds of Iceland" (1902). 

Smith, Charles Sprague; Cooper Union, New York city. 
United States. 

Author of "Summer in Iceland" (1889) in "Scribner's Magazine" (vol. VI.). 

Soderwall, Dr. Knut Fredrik; professor at the University, 
Lund, Sweden. 

Author of "De nordiska sprakens uttryck for sedliga begrepp" (1895), and of 
various essays. 

Solberg, Thorvald; bibliographer, chief of the Copyright 
Department, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., United 

Compiler of "A list of the text-editions and translations of the Eddas" in 
"Bulletin of the Boston public Library" (1884, VI. i., pp. 74 — 84). 

Speight, Ernest Edwin, B. A.; The Green, Shaldon, South 
Devon, England. 

Author of "Children of Odin" (1903); co-editor of "Stories from the Northern 
Sagas" (1899). 

Steenstrup, Dr. Johannes, C. H. R.; professor at the Univer- 
sity of Copenhagen; Svanemosegaardsvej 23, Copenhagen. 

Authofof "Normannerne" (4 vols. 1877— 1882), ^^ which he treats of the Ice- 
landic sources on the Viking Age. 


Sveinbjornsson, Sveinbjorn; composer; 55 Comiston Drive, 
Edinburgh, Scotland. 

A native of Iceland. Author of many melodies to Icelandic words. 

Sweet, Henry; 15 Rawlinson Road, Oxford, England. 

Author of "An Icelandic Primer" (1886, 2d ed., 1896). 

Symons, Dr. Barend; professor at the University, Groningen, 

Co-editor (with Dr. Gering) of "Die Lieder der Edda" (1901); author of "Over 
afleiding en beteekenis van het woord Edda" (1898), and of works on Teutonic 

Tamm, Professor Dr. Fredrik August; docent at the Uni- 
versity, Upsala, Sweden. 

Author of "Om fornnordiska feminina, afledda pa // och pa ipa^ (^877), 
and of many similar philological treatises. 

Tannen, Karl; 52 Proven, Bremen, Germany. 

Editor of "Island und Gronland zum Anfang des i7ten Jahrhunderts" (1890), 
being a reprint of the work by D. Fabricius. 

Teichmann, Dr. Albert; professor at the University, Basle; 
43 Sempacherstrasse, Basle, Switzerland. 

Translator of "Rede gegen die Bischofe Altnorwegens 1197" (1899). 

Thiele, Dr. Richard; director of the Royal Gymnasium at 
Erfurt; Schillerstrasse 8, Erfurt, Prussia. 

Author of "Die Insel Island und ihre Bedeutung" (1894). 

Toutain, Jules; administrateur des Invalides de la marine; 
I rue du Printemps, Paris, France. 

Author of "Les Northmans en Islande au Moyen-Age" (1898), in the "Bulletin 
de la Societe normande de geographic." 

Us sing, Henrik, M. A.; teacher; Vejen, Jutland, Denmark. 

Translator of IndriSi Einarsson's "Svaerd og Krumstav" (1901). 

Valroger, Lucien de; Conseiller d'Etat; 32 rue du Bac, 
Paris, France. 

Author of "Moeurs et institutions de I'ancienne Islande" (1897) in the "Nou- 
velle Revue historique du Droit." 

Vendell, Hermann; docent at the Uni ^rs^v. H elsingfors. 
Finland. ^^^^nSX^^ 

Translator of "Sverris saga" (1885). (f ^^ THF 



Vetter, Dr. Ferdinand; professor at the University, Berne; 
Aargauerstalden 13, Berne, Switzerland. 

Author of "Der Eyjafjallajokull" (1887), of "Thingvellir und die altislandische 
Landesgemeinde" (1892, in "Schwelzerische Rundschau"), and of other essays. 

Wadstein, Elis; professor at the University, Gothenburg, 

Author of a series of articles entitled "Bidrag till tolkning ock belysning av 
skjalde- ock Eddadikter" in "Arkiv for nordisk filologi," and of several other 

Wagner, Felix; Virton (Luxembourg), Belgium. 

•Editor and translator of "Le livre des Islandais du pretre Ari le Savant" (1898) 
published by the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Liege, and translator 
of "Le Saga de Gunnlaug Langue de Serpent" (1899). 

Wall, A., M. A.; professor at the University of New Zealand 
(Canterbury College); Christchurch, New Zealand. 

Author of "A contribution towards the study of the Scandinavian element in 
the English dialects" (1897) in "Anglia," vol. VIII. 

Wiehe, Holger, M. A.; Nansensgade 8, Copenhagen. 

Translator of Gestur Palsson's "Fire Fprtsellinger" (1896), and of Einar Hjor- 
leifsson's "To Fortaellinger fra Island" (1900); author of "Fjorir songvar fyrir 
karlmannaraddir" (1900) in "EimreiSin," etc. 

Wimmer, Dr. Ludvig F. A.; professor at the University, 
Copenhagen; Norrebrogade 9, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Author of "Oldnordisk Formlaere" (5th ed., 1896, Icelandic translation 1885), 
and compiler of "Oldnordisk Laesebog" (6th ed., 1903); author of many valu- 
able runological and philological works. 

Windisch, Dr. Paul; upper teacher; Meerane, Saxony. 

Author of "Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Tertiarflora von Island" (1886). 

Zerlang, the Rev. J. R.; Holbol, Schleswig, Germany. 

Translator of several brief tales from the Icelandic. 

Z irk el, Dr. Ferdinand; professor at the University, Leipsic; 
Thalstrasse 33, Leipsic, Germany. 

Author of "De geognostica Islandiae constitutione observationes" (1861); co- 
author (with W. Preyer) of "Reise nach Island" (1862). 

Zugmayer, Erich; zoologist; 95 Lainzerstrasse, Vienna XIII, 

Author of "Eine Reise durch Island" (1903). 


Current 3celan&ic Serials 1903* 

Almanak. By C. F. Pechiile; Copenhagen; yearly. 
Almanak bins fslenzka {*JGdvinaf^lags. Reykjavik; yearly, 

30th year. 
Alf)ingisticiindi. Reykjavik; biennial. 
Andvari. Published by Hid islenzka t^j6(5vinafelag; Reykjavik; 

yearly, 29th year. 
Arbok bins islenzka Fornleifafelags. Reykjavik; yearly, 
Austri. Editor, Skapti Josefsson; SeySisfjordur; weekly, 13th 

Barnabladid. Editor, Mrs. Briet Bjarnhec^insdottir; Reykjavik; 

monthly, 6th year. 
Bjarki. Editor, Thorsteinn V. Gislason; Seydisfjordur; weekly, 

8th year. 
BunaSarrit. Published by the BunaSarfelag Islands; Reykjavik; 

quarterly, 17th year. 
Eimreidin. Editor, Valtyr GuSmundsson ; Copenhagen; pub- 
lished every four months, 9th year. 
Draupnir. Editor, Mrs. Torfhildur Holm; Reykjavik; yearly, 

7th year. 
Dvol. Editor, Mrs.Torfhildur Holm; Reykjavik ; monthly, 3d year. 
Fjallkonan. Editor, the Rev. Olafur Olafsson; Reykjavik; 

weekly, 20th year. 
Fraekorn. Editor, David Ostlund; Seydisfjor5ur; (illustrated) 

half-monthly, 4th year. 
Gjallarhorn. Editors, Bernhard A. Laxdal and Jon Stefdns- 

son; Akureyri; irregular, ist year. 
Good-Templar. Editor, SigurSurJonsson; Reykjavik; monthly, 

7th year. 
Haukur hinn ungi. Editor, Stefan Runolfsson; Reykjavik; 

irregular, 7th year. 


H eropiS. Published by the Salvation Army; Reykjavik; monthly, 

8th year. 
Hlin. Editor, Stefan B. Jonsson; Reykjavik; semiannual, 2d 

Ingolfur. Editor, Bjarni Jonsson; Reykjavik; half-monthly, ist 

Isafold. Editor, Bjorn Jonsson; Reykjavik; weekly, 30th year. 
Kvennabla5i5. Editor, Briet BjarnheSinsdottir; Reykjavik; 

monthly, 9th year. 
Landvorn. Editor, Einar Benediktsson; Reykjavik; irregular, 

I St year (only a few numbers published). 
Landshagsskyrslur. Published by the Government; editor, 

Jon Magnusson; Reykjavik; yearly. 
Muninn. Editor, Petur Zophoniasson; Reykjavik; quarterly, 

I St year. 
NorSurland. Editor, Einar Hjorleifsson; Akureyri; weekly, 

2d year. 
Plogur. Editor, wSigur6ur Thorolfsson; Reykjavik; monthly, 

3d year. 
P6stbla5i6. Editor, SigurSur Briem; Reykjavik; monthly; 

1st year. 
Reykjavikin. Editor, Jon Olafsson ; Reykjavik; weekly, 3d year. 
Ritaukaskra Landsbokasafnsins; Reykjavik; yearly. 
Skirnir. Published by HiQ islenzka Bokmenntafelag; Reykja- 
vik; yearly, 77th year 
Skyrsla um hi5 islenzka natturufraeSisfelag. Published 

by the Society; Reykjavik; yearly. 
Stefnir. Editor, Bjorn Jonsson; Akureyri; irregular, nth year. 
Stj ornartiSindi. PubHshed by the Government; Reykjavik; 

appears in sheets, the number of which varies. 
Sunnanfari. Editor, Bjorn Jonsson; Reykjavik; (illustrated) 

monthly, nth year. 
TjaldbuSin. Editor, the Rev. Hafsteinn Petursson; Copen- 
hagen; yearly, loth year. 


Tfmarit bins fslenzka Bokmenntaf^lags. Reykjavik; 

yearly, 24th year. 
VerSi Ijos. Editors, Jon Helgason and Haraldur Nlelsson; 

Reykjavik; monthly, 8th year. 
Vestri. Editor, Kristjdn H. Jonsson; Isafjor6ur; weekly, 3d 

{*j6561fur. Editor, Hannes Thorsteinsson ; Reykjavik; weekly, 

55th year. 
Pjodviljinn. Editor, Skuli Thoroddsen; Bessastadir; weekly, 

17th year. 


Aldamot. Editor, the Rev. FriSrik J. Bergmann; Winnipeg, 

Manitoba; yearly, 13th year. 
Almanak. Editor, Olafur S. Thorgeirsson ; Winnipeg, Mani- 
toba; yearly, loth year. 
Almanak. Editor, S. B. Benediktsson ; Selkirk, Manitoba; 

yearly; 5th year. 
Freyja. Editor, Margret J. Benediktsson; Selkirk, Manitoba; 

monthly, 5th year. 
Heimskringla. Editor, Baldwin L. Baldwinsson; Winnipeg, 

Manitoba; weekly, 17th year. 
Kennarinn. Editor, the Rev. N. Steingrimur Thorlaksson; 

Winnipeg, Manitoba; monthly, 6th year (now published as 

a supplement to "Sameiningin"). 
Logberg. Editor, Magnus Paulsson; Winnipeg, Manitoba; 

weekly, i6th year. 
Sameiningin. Editor, the Rev. Jon Bjarnason; Winnipeg, 

Manitoba; monthly, i8th year. 
Svava. Editor, G. M. Thompson; Gimli, Manitoba; monthly, 

5th year. 
Vinland. Editors, the Rev. Bjorn B. Jonsson and Th. Th6r5- 

arson; Minneota, Minnesota, United States ; monthly, istyear. 


ffiotes on 5ceIanMc /IDatters, 

Correspondence. — Those desirous of obtaining informa- 
tion from Iceland, concerning its trade, productions, commercial 
regulations, hunting and fishing, natural history, education, li- 
braries, publications, or any other matter, will be pretty sure 
to receive replies, if their communications be written in any 
of the principal modern languages of Europe (except Russian), al- 
though, next to Icelandic, Danish, and Swedish, the tongue most 
generally known throughout the island is English. Especial 
attention should be given to the note elsewhere on "'The Ice- 
landic Post." 

Icelandic Books for foreign Public Libraries. — Works 
printed in modern Icelandic, either in the island or in other 
lands, may be procured of the booksellers indicated elsewhere 
in the lists of addresses. Most important for large libraries 
abroad are the admirable issues of the Icelandic Literary So- 
ciety (Bokinenntafelag), lists of which may be had either of 
the Reykjavik or Copenhagen branch. One of the Society's 
serials, the annual Skirnir, contains a careful catalogue of all 
new-Icelandic publications of the preceding year, wherever 
printed; besides which, Icelandic bibhographers — latterly Mr. 
Bogi Thorarensen Melste5 — have furnished to the "Nordisk 
Boghandlertidende" of Copenhagen a yearly list of books is- 
sued in Iceland. The two oldest journals of the island are the 
weekly Pjodolfur and Isafold (twice a week in summer), both 
ably edited and handsomely printed (Reykjavik) ; the two prin- 
cipal organs of Icelandic public opinion in America are the 
weekly Hei7nskringla and Logberg of Winnipeg, the largest 
newspapers in the language. Editions of old-Icelandic works 
(the Eddas and Sagas), as well as grammars and lexicons of 


the earlier dialect, may, of course, be obtained through good 
booksellers everywhere, when not published in Iceland itself. 
Perhaps the four largest stocks of such works of earlier dates 
are kept by Harrassowitz of Leipzig; Herm. H.J. Lynge & Son 
(8 Walkendorfsgade), and the "Skandinavisk Antiquariat" (33 
Bredgade), both of Copenhagen ; and "Klemmings Antiquariat" 
of Stockholm. From a scientific point of view the numerous 
writings of the distinguished living geographer and naturalist, 
Thorvaldur Thoroddsen, are of extraordinary value for public 

Qlfts to Icelandic Libraries should be well packed and 
plainly addressed, and forwarded by book-post or as ordinary 
printed matter, or by parcels post, via Leith, Scotla7id. The 
large public libraries will most gladly receive any books what- 
ever, since their means for purchases are very restricted, and 
the demands of their readers insatiable; but for the smaller 
book-collections, scattered over the land, useful or entertaining 
(rather than purely learned) works will be especially acceptable 
— for not only is the fondness for reading everywhere great, 
but the opportunity for it, in the long evenings of winter, is 
most ample. Illustrated works (for example on travel, history, 
natural history, trades, popular science), pictorial journals and 
photographs can be understood by everybody. In other respects 
a little discrimination may well be used, such as the sending of 
theological works to the Theological School library; of medical 
books to the Medical School; agricultural and horticultural 
works to the Agricultural Schools; on avocations of women 
to the Female High Schools, and so on. Journals and magazines 
will be eagerly perused in the reading-rooms of any of the 
principal schools. Greatly desired by the National Library are 
books, essays and articles relating in >any way to Iceland, to 
the old or new Icelandic literature, or to the Icelandic colonies 
in America. 

How to get to Iceland.— During the spring and summer, 



various steamers (the number of which is constantly increasing) 
leave Denmark, Norway, and sometimes Great Britain, for Ice- 
land, but the usual passenger route is by the Icelandic-Danish 
mail steamers, which start from Copenhagen, and always touch 
at Leith, Scotland. By their contract with the Icelandic gov- 
ernment they are obliged to make eighteen trips a year (sail- 
ing a little less often in the winter than in the summer), calling 
generally, going and coming, at the Faroes. But their course 
varies greatly, partly according to the season of the year. They 
make, in the pleasant months, some four or five trips complete- 
ly around Iceland, stopping at some 20 ports, situated either 
at the mouths of the fjords, or further up, remaining, at some 
of these calling-points, several hours. The beauty and even 
grandeur of many of the firths they thus enter, and the won- 
derful panoroma of mountains, grayish green or snowy white, 
glistening glaciers, gigantic cliffs, fantastic rocks, picturesque 
valleys and waterfalls, huge headlands and promontories — the 
whole unfolding itself as the steamer follows the thousand miles 
of coast — makes this circumnavigation one of the most interest- 
ing of sea trips. There are also two domestic lines of coast 
steamers, one running from Reykjavik, northerly, and then 
easterly, to Akureyri, the largest port in the north, and return- 
ing by the same route; the other line sails also to Akureyri 
and back, but goes from Reykjavik easterly (along the southern 
shore), then northwardly and westerly; taken together, there- 
fore, they likewise make the complete circuit of the island. 
These smaller steamers touch at some ports not reached by 
the larger vessels. Complete and accurate schedules of all these 
steamers, with the dates of their trips and the points called at, 
are published in December of each year, good for the follow- 
ing twelve months, and may be had on application to the 
Icelandic steamer office (Messrs. George V. Turnbull & Co.), 
Leith, Scotland, or at the office of the United Steamship 
Company (Det forenede Dampskibs Selskab), Copenhagen, 


Denmark. The boats are fairly comfortable, the table and ser- 
vice very good, and the rates most reasonable. There is still 
another line of steamers, making regular trips between Copen- 
hagen and various Icelandic ports, known as the Thore line, 
belonging to the Icelandic-Danish mercantile house of Thor E. 
Tuhnius, the head of which is a native of Iceland, and the 
chief seat of which in Iceland is at Eskifjor6ur, in the south- 
east. The fares on this line are somewhat lower, but these 
boats touch less often in Great Britain, although they frequently 
call at Norwegian ports. Schedules obtainable of Thor E. 
Tulinius, Havnegade 43, Copenhagen. Besides these, there are 
one or two other lines, and occasional excursion steamers. 

Iceland as a Summer Sanatorium.— Those who are best 
acquainted with the great northern island most fully appreciate 
the remarkable union of natural qualities and influences which 
make its climate, in the year's warmest months, absolutely the 
best attainable (taking ease of access into account) by the in- 
habitants of the overcrowded cities and districts of north-western 
Europe for the purposes of a sanitary or restorative sojourn. 
To enumerate or dwell on the features of Iceland, which make 
this statement true, is not possible in the restricted space at 
the command of the writer. A few of the more salient can 
alone be passed in review. The foremost are the extraordinary 
purity, clearness and, in summer, general dryness of the atmos- 
phere — pure by reason of its freedom from the taint of dust 
and the other contaminations of civic communities, and because 
of its clarification, every eight or ten days, even in the warm- 
est season, by a strong wind; clear to such an extent that, 
through it, mountains are visible and recognizable a hundred 
miles away; and dry because it is permeated, often for long 
periods, by twenty hours of sunshine in every twenty-four, the 
effect of which even light showers, or a succession of light 
showers, or an occasional mountain-born storm, do not essen- 
tially modify, since, as has been said, it takes much rain to 


wash out a northern sun. This presence of an unsulHed at- 
mospheric medium, previously tempered by the glaciers and 
the sea, and then pervaded all the day and nearly all the night, 
by a vitalizing solar glow, is, of course, a phenomenon only 
possible in a high arctic land. An additional climatic advantage 
possessed by Iceland is the comparative absence, more partic- 
ularly marked in the northern provinces, of that especially 
malevolent humidity, which springs from the existence of forests 
and fens damp with vegetable decay. Still another is the sense 
of healthy calm and nervous repose, invariably produced by 
the summer life of Iceland upon the mind and body of the 
stranger sojourning within her gates, — a mental condition, 
which is indeed induced alike by the air of its sand-plains and 
lava-fields, and by the atmosphere that floats over the desert 
tracts of Egypt and Arabia. In common with Switzerland, 
Iceland possesses, but at lower altitudes, and consequently 
more conveniently reached, great masses of snow and glaciers 
— the Vatnajokull, in the south-east, being the most extensive 
field of ice in Europe; and Icelanders know how to recount 
instances of remarkable recoveries from the infection of tuber- 
culosis by residence in these frozen portions of the island. The 
whole country benefits, too, as Switzerland does not, from the 
salty breezes of the ocean, so generally, during the sunny season, 
both benign and bracing. And finally, it enjoys, as we shall 
see, yet one more of nature's blessings, lacking to all the fre- 
quented higher rei^ions of the European continent, namely 
innumerable hot springs, of varied constituents and effects, 
scattered through each of its four great provinces. Thus all 
who seek health in the lofty world of the Alps, or in the cool- 
ing winds and refreshing waves of the sea-margins, or in the 
thermal sources of Bohemia, or Nassau, or Tuscany, will find 
every one of their priceless advantages combined in this single 
marvellous land. — Yet there are many other considerations, 
which tend to indicate Iceland as the future's great sanatorium. 


One of these is, of course, the gentler average temperature of 
the summer, when compared with that of more southern local- 
ities, despite the prolonged sunshine and the dryness to which 
we have referred. Even the noon-day hours are rarely oppres- 
sive to the foreigner. A second favourable point is the fact 
that the abundant waters, already alluded to, have an une- 
qualled range of temperature, from lukewarmness to the boiling- 
point; and they include the Great Geysirs, with a myriad of lesser 
ones, the strong sulphur cauldrons, and the bubbling, puffing, 
seething kettles of mud. Of the cold and potable medicinal 
waters, the so-called "alewells" (olkeldur), or carbonic-acid 
sources, are, perhaps, of most frequent occurrence on the long 
Snaefellsnes and in the adjacent districts of the west; at one 
of these (RauSamels-olkelda), most happily situated, and very 
easy of access, the erection of a spacious summer hotel is 
already contemplated. Many of the hot springs have long been 
used, in a more or less crude way, for the treatment of rheu- 
matic and kindred ailments, but many are still awaiting the 
study and tests of the analyst, while the numerous strange 
natural vapour baths, even without any really proper methods 
and means of appliance, have shown themselves efficacious in 
more than one variety of gout. The kind of physical exercise, 
moreover, most readily obtainable in Iceland, is also the most 
valuable for the classes of invalids which usually frequent health- 
resorts. It is no unimportant matter, though it be but a nega- 
tive blessing, that the victim of indigestion is not exposed here 
to the temptation of carriage or car. For although the govern- 
ment of Iceland, in view of its greatly enhanced revenues, has 
energetically set at^out the building of carriage-roads, and has 
already completed long stret-ches, it will be many years before 
the island possesses any such extended system of highways as 
is to be found elsewhere. The man of torpid liver, or of slug- 
gish blood, will thus generally be compelled to take his airings, 
and make his excursions, on the Icelandic pony, one of the 


most intelligent, easy-seated and sure-footed of animals ; it would 
be difficult to desire a pleasanter and, at the same time, more 
effective kind of bodily exercise. — Notwithstanding the many 
drawbacks encountered, especially the struggles with a moist 
arctic winter, cases of extreme old-age are not uncommon in 
Iceland. The number of living persons over ninety years of 
age, as the island's statistics show, is, in proportion to its 
80,000 inhabitants, noticeably large; and an article, covering 
a longer period, by a student of the popular life of his native 
land (see the illustrated journal "Sunnanfari," III, pp. 6—7, 
13 — 14) gives the names and stories of many Iqelandic centen- 
arians in the past, one of whom, as is asserted, reached the 
venerable age of 1 1 3 years. — The health-statistics of Iceland show 
a constant improvement. Formerly deaths of infants where far 
too numerous, but drier and more wholesome dwellings have 
greatly lowered the rate. — It is hardly necessary to refer to the 
influence upon the mind, and through that upon the body, which 
the novel world he enters, when he sets foot upon the shores 
of Iceland, inevitably produces on the brain-tired intellectual 
labourer. Here he finds something fresh — vastly different from 
the always same and more or less wearisome hotel and casino 
life, which he lives through in the watering-places of the rest 
of Europe. Here are mountains unlike the mountains he knows, 
plains and valleys and lakes and glaciers and fountains and 
cascades such as he has never seen, surroundings which have 
not the tameness of familiarity; a past, which is strange to him, 
and a present abounding in novelty. Such a change of climate 
as this refreshes the mind as it heals the body. — Of all trav- 
ellers the keen-eyed Burton best sums up the general effect 
upon the summer sojourner in Iceland: "It is strange how her 
beauties grow upon him. Doubtless the scenery depends far 
more upon colour and complexion than in the genial lands of 
the lower temperates. But during the delightfully mild and 
pleasant weather of July and August, seen through a medium 


of matchless purity, there is much to admire in the rich meads 
and leas stretching to meet the light-blue waves; in the fretted 
and angular outlines of the caverned hills, the abodes of giant 
and dwarf; in the towering walls of huge horizontal steps which 
define the fjords, and in the immense vistas of silvery cupolas, 
'cravatted' cones and snow-capped mulls, which blend and melt 
with ravishing reflections of ethereal pink, blue, azure, and lilac, 
into the grey and neutral tints of the horizon. And often there 
is the most picturesque of contrasts: summer basking below, 
and winter raging above; peace brooding upon the vale, and 
elemental war doing fierce battle upon the eternal snows and 
ice of the upper world." 

The natural Wonders of Iceland. — When a traveller in 
the arctic Thule returns home and becomes reminiscent, it is 
difficult for him to avoid the language of exaggeration. If he 
has sailed all around the island, and has, besides, wandered 
up and down its interior, he has seen a new world, has ob- 
served a surprising number of new objects, and has lived through 
a new life. If it be not all beautiful, it is all fascinating — although 
sometimes with the fascination of awe. For there is no country, 
travelled of man, which combines as Iceland does, the antag- 
onistic marvels of frost and steam, of ice and fire, of gloom 
and colour, of darkness and light. It is, on the whole, une- 
qualled in all Europe for its gushing fountains of seething 
water, for its stupendous streams of lava, for its vast volumes 
of milk-white torrents plunging over grim and swarthy rocks, 
for the varied, weird and fantastic forms of its mountains, for 
the intense green of its meads and lowlands and often of its 
climbing slopes, for the luminous tints of its peaks, for the 
splendors of its heavens, and for the gray, overawing desolation 
poured out by its volcanoes. Landing, let us say, in the later 
May or the earlier June, the tourist is at first dazzled by the 
glory of continuous daylight. But his eye soon accepts, with 
contented pleasure, the unwonted radiance, once he has got 


over his surprise at learning that God has given the sun to 
this favoured land for a light by night as well as by day. At 
midnight he reads his guide-book, or gazes at the landscape, 
near or far, with the same ease and enjoyment as at midday. 
If he be early enough, he may still see a pale aurora shim- 
mering in the firmament, but for a sight of that phenomenon 
in its full magnificence, wrapping the whole sky in a mantle 
of overwhelming and ever-shifting beauty — of which dwellers 
in lower latitudes can form no adequate conception - he must 
wait until the nights have grown longer and darker in the last 
fortnight of August and through the months of September and 
October. As he becomes more famiHar with his surroundings 
he will discover, if he be English, that he is acquiring a clearer 
notion than he has ever had of the life led by his Anglo-Saxon 
ancestors, and that he is really making the acquaintance of a 
yeomanry as sturdy as that of the early English ages. If the 
Althing be in session at Reykjavik, and he enter the capitol 
to listen to its debates, he finds himself in the presence of the 
oldest existing legislative assembly — dating back to the days 
when the Witenagemot of his forefathers was still making the 
laws of England. From day to day, as he journeys, he will 
note along his path so many objects, delightful or startling to 
his vision, that they cannot all be enumerated in the lines we 
are writing. Among the first of them may very likely be the 
strange features of the worlds of lava and basalt. The wide- 
extending plains of the former, the vast dykes resulting from 
the sudden cooling of its streams, the fantastic masses which 
they pile up as they flow, and above all such singular gorges 
as the Almannagja and the Hrafnagja — less than a day's ride 
from the capital - will overwhelm him with their strangeness. 
Farther on, in the north, are the clefts of the Asbyrgi -- that 
rocky wonder — with its charming accessories, such as the cool 
green of trees in its sheltered depths ; while the unending lava 
levels he traverses in reaching it, and which extend into many 


Other quarters, may indeed be melancholy, yet they are none 
the less awsome to the eye and impressive to the imagination. 
The lesser crevices in the lava, not infrequently lined with the 
pendant tresses of the maiden-hair fern, mirrored, with a back- 
ground of sky, in a limpid pool at the bottom, show that even 
below its surface Iceland has its half-hidden gems. On a larger 
scale are the rocky grottoes like Surtshellir, which, with its roof- 
adorning icicles, is a miracle of subterranean singularity, 
rendered more attractive by the quaint legends of which it is 
the scene ; and then there are other caverns similar to it, including 
the one lately discovered near the Almannagja. — The vast 
glaciers give rise to many swift streams and streamlets of milky 
water, contrasting strangely with the crystal purity of those 
which have their origin in the less icy mountainous regions. 
Both the one and the other form, in their courses, scores of 
waterfalls of great mass as well as of great height. One of these, 
the Dettifoss, draining in part the monstrous south-eastern ice- 
tract, holds the foremost place among European cascades, 
though few other than native eyes have looked upon the mighty 
natural marvel. It is situated on one of the largest of the several 
streams which bear the name of Jokulsa, flowing towards the 
northern sea, and precipitates itself with sudden fierceness into 
a great gorge nearly a score of miles in length, bordered by 
rocky walls from loo to 150 feet in height. The vast depth 
of water, charged with glacial clay, making it of turbid white- 
ness, rushes, foaming, frothing, steaming, and thundering, down 
some 330 feet into the narrow chasm, actually, in its fierce 
fury, causing the rocks, which enclose it, to tremble. Only less 
inferior in majesty are the GuUfoss, at no great distance from 
the Great Geysirs; the Godafoss on the northern Skjalfanda- 
fljot, overhung by its canopy of mist and growling out its far- 
heard roar; the Fjardararfoss in the east; the Skogafoss in the 
southern realm of jokuls, which, when looked down upon by 
the midday sun, reveals, in rock and water, an astonishing play 


of colour; the very notable trio of falls, gay in summer with 
verdure and flowers — one of them adorned with a charming 
islet on its very verge — situated in the Sog, the outlet of the 
Thingvallavatn ; and, beside these, a host of other floods, in other 
parts, pouring over steep clifls. These are the Niagaras of the 
island, but there are, besides, not a few falls which delight the 
eye by their loftiness and grace, recalling those of the Califor- 
nian Yosemite. Such are the Hengifoss ("hanging cataract") 
in the Fljotsdalur, the Dynjandi ("thundering") cascade on the 
ArnarfjorSur, and the unforgettable Seljalandsfoss, leaping from 
high up the Eyjafjallajokull, near the southern shore — a slender 
thread of water, which, glittering in the sunlight, is visible from 
beyond the sea that separates the Westman islands from the 
mainland, and tells the islanders, before setting out, by the 
way it is blown hither and thither, whether they may hope to 
make a landing on the neighbouring harbourless coast; and the 
Drifandifoss, also driven, as its name indicates, to and fro — 
the plaything of the breeze; but, as in other worlds of snow-clad 
heights, these rivulets, descending, like fair and shining ribbons, 
from great elevations, occur, in vernal and summer days, every- 
where all over the land. — No quarter of the earth excels Ice- 
land in the unending diversity of its mountain shapes, which 
present every possible outline of slope and summit, as well as 
every possible order of grouping. They are conical, domed, 
pyramidal, truncated, horned, pointed, turtle-backed, grotesque, 
single-pinnacled and many-pinnacled, massive and slender, 
terraced and columnar, turreted and crested, solitary and 
clustered, and so on ad infiniHcm. Of course they divide 
themselves into two markedly differing classes, the volcanic 
and non-volcanic ; and into two other classes, the jokulls (glacial 
mountains), and those without glaciers — jokull signifying, 
in a general way, either a glacier or a glacier-producing moun- 
tain. As volcanoes, jokulls rarely emit lava, but only showers 
of ash. Merely a small number of the multitudinous and mul- 


tiform mountains of Iceland can be cited here. The most re- 
nowned of the volcanoes is, of course, Hekla, around which 
grew up in Europe, during the middle ages, a whole world 
of myths and superstitious beliefs, somewhat akin to those which 
had centered, during classical pagan times, in Etna and Vesu- 
vius. Hekla is, from most points of view, hardly worthy its 
world-wide fame — a more or less imposing, but rather rough 
and rugged eminence; while the Oraefajokull, the highest of Ice- 
land's mountains, whether fire-spouting or not (nearly 6,400 feet), 
and lying in the south-east — an outpost of the vast glacial 
domain of that region — soars, with icy majesty, above its many 
companions. To the traveller approaching from the Faeroes, 
Eyjafjallajokull, in the uttermost south, is apt to be his first 
Icelandic vision; he sees before him not a few cloud-tipped 
peaks, climbing finally into a noble ice-crowned summit. As, 
later on, having left Hekla behind him, he rounds the island's 
south westernmost point into the waters of the broad Faxafjord- 
ur, his eyes, looking northward, are fastened upon the Snae- 
fellsjokull, in prehistoric days a fuming giant and now resem- 
bling, in its outline, Mediterranean Etna, as one comes sailing 
from the Levant to that towering warder of Sicily; a memor- 
able mount indeed is Snasfellsjokull, even when seen across 
the water from Reykjavik sixty miles away, notably when its 
dome is set in the unequalled glories of an Arctic sunset; and 
on the same fjord, turning toward the capital its great motley- 
coloured bluffs, stands Esja, an unending delight to the eye. 
Near the northernmost Jokulsa rises the ponderous-looking 
Her5ubrei5 (the "broadshouldered"), dark-blue of hue and 
steeply-sided, surmounted by its double glaciers, which, under 
the sheen of the sun, become alternately masses of frosted and 
masses of polished silver; and in the same quarter is the still 
higher Snaefell (5,800 feet) — not to be confounded with the 
western Snasfellsjokull — on which the light seems always to 
fondly linger, as its far-seen summit looks down upon the 


long, broad, pleasant Fljotsdalur, one of the glories of the 
east; and a little more inland is the destructive, many-cratered 
Askja, holding in its bosom its strangely swelling tepid lake, 
thinly separated from still actively fuming fires — a part of the 
mighty Dyngjufjoll group, in the midst of that dreaded and 
dreary lava desert, the OdaSahraun ; from Askja came the fear- 
some eruption of 1875, which enwrapped all Eastern Iceland 
in dense darkness, and carpeted an immense tract with a stifl- 
ing bed of pumice; Askja consists of a great crater, margined 
by many small ones, the great one ranking for size among the 
most stupendous of this class of phenomena — so extensive, as 
one visitor says of it, that a city of half a million inhabitants 
might easily find room in the awful cavity. Far lower in alti- 
tude than any of these is the long-dormant volcano, Krafla, 
elevating itself not far away from the islanded lake of Myvatn, 
out of which poured in 1729 that reverent torrent of molten 
matter, which, arriving at the churchyard of ReykjahliS, divi- 
ded into two streams and flowed, in either direction, around 
the sacred edifice, lest it should desecrate so holy a place. The 
visitor rides up Krafla's slopes along an easy horse-path, mar- 
gined, in the proper season, by patches of blue-eyed forget- 
me-nots, growing ever tinier as the ascent continues, to gaze 
finally from its peak on a long chain of loftier ice-decked 
summits bounding the distant horizon. Close beside its base 
swells up the glistening Hrafntinnuhryggur, a solid mountain- 
height, embedding massive fragments of obsidian, that smooth 
and shining semi-precious rocky material — found elsewhere, 
too, in the island — from which the deftly-fingered and indus 
trious Sicilian artisan fabricates so many pretty and prized 
ornaments. Very singular, as it lingers in the memory, is the 
huge Eldborg, another long-inactive fire-mountain, seeming, from 
nearly every point of the compass, a stupendous fortress of the 
old giants, now shorn, like them, of its once dangerous strength. 
Another minor, but still formidable looking specimen ot the 


numerous class of castle-like elevations is the Stora Borg (or 
Borgarvirki) in the Vldidalur, bearing aloft its high encircling 
ramparts of thick-set basaltic columns, out of which a historical 
tradition will have it that, just after the tenth century of our 
era had passed away, a hero of the saga epoch made a real 
fortress, and long and stoutly defended it. But there is left 
here only room enough to catalogue, in a disordered way, a 
few more of these multitudinous mountains — Arnarfellsjokull, 
really a section of the far-extending Hofsjokull, sending forth 
its score of glaciers; Langjokull in mid-Iceland, boasting half 
a score more, and in the western snows of which lies that 
cold, almost inaccessible valley, once lighted and warmed by 
the hues and fires of fancy, the legend-rich Thorisdalur; Torfajok- 
ull, its base fringed with clusters of steaming hot springs, and 
lying in easy sight of Hekla; Eiriksjokull, from which came, 
long ago, many of those tongues of lava, which lie in the upper 
valleys of the historic Hvftd, and which are described by a late 
traveller as being beds "filled in all their hollows with pretty 
foliage and flowers, and the contrast of the dainty blossoms 
and ferns with the rugged black caves and clefts, in which 
they are sheltered, gives a curious and* unexpected poetry to the 
scene" — but this is a picture again and again repeated on the 
more ancient lava levels; Glama and the Drangjokull, which 
raise from the elevated plateau of the north-western peninsula, 
their snowy cupolas and buttresses, the latter, morever, pushing 
down its flowing glaciers almost to the water's edge by the 
harsh and inhospitable Homstrandir, where the so-styled Drang- 
ar, a series of gigantic pointed pyramids stretch out into the 
icy sea and give their name to the loftier peak. — Of the most 
observable features which characterize the fire and ice jokull- 
regions may be especially cited the expanses of lava, large 
and small, already passingly alluded to, such as the vast Oda6a- 
hraun (the "desert of evil deeds") — once peopled, in the 
popular imagination, by desperate outlaws; the long, grassless 


Sprengisandur, between the Arnarfell and the Tungnafellsjokull, 
haunted, as he who traverses it finds out, by the pursuing 
spirits of dreariness and soHtude, and which has hence produced 
one of the most stirring poems of the nineteenth century: 

Ri'Sum, ridum og rekum yfir sandinn, 
rennur sol a bak vi5 Arnarfell; 

the myriad of glaciers, both the stationary and the flowing 
(creeping glaciers), generally differing in character from the icy 
formations of more southern lands, both waging endless war- 
fare against the genial forces of the sun, and producing a strange 
phenomenon, peculiar to Iceland, styled an "ice-leap," caused 
by the welling up of water, which detaches great fragmentary 
portions of the glacier and then bears them down to the low- 
lands; the many gigantic glacier-borne boulders, known as 
Grettistok ("Grettir grips" or "Grettir takes"), since they were 
hurled, according to the lore of the folk, by the invincible na- 
tional hero against his pursuing foes; and, lastly, in a larger 
sense, the 750 square miles occupied by the icy tract of the 
Vatnajokull in the south-east, the interior of which is still partial- 
ly unexplored. One may see from the preceding pages, faint 
and imperfect as such a sketch is, that the Alpinist and the 
student of mountainous nature can find few finer fields for his 
observation and study than the island of Iceland. — Closely 
connected, too, with the country's volcanic activity are the 
sulphur springs (or solfataras), the chief being those of Krisuvik 
on the Reykjanes peninsula south of Reykjavik, and those in 
the neighbourhood of Lake Myvatn in the northern province. 
Both offer scenes of singular grotesqueness and of extraordinary 
interest. On the northern Namafjall the sulphur rises to the 
surface near the top of the slope, where there are many steam- 
ing fissures, while the surrounding ground, as seen from a 
longish distance to the east, is brilliant with every tint of red 
and yellow. At the bottom of the glowing hillside exist many 


pools of puffing and gas-emitting clay. Other sulphur sources 
are found nearer Husavfk. — Iceland no longer has a monopoly 
of gigantic spouting hot wells, as in the days when the Great 
Geysir was reckoned one of the world's wonders, and hence 
gave its Icelandic name to its rivals in New-Zealand and in 
the Yellowstone Valley of North America; yet still no land 
has such an abundance of these boiling waters, extending over 
so large a territory. The fellow of the Great Geysir, the Strokk- 
ur, so popular with travellers of many generations, has ceased, 
since a recent earthquake, to exhibit its peculiar powers, but 
Geysir yet has, in the same plain, more than fifty lesser com- 
panions. Far south, near the sea, was, till lately, another spout- 
ing well, called the Little Geysir, but it, too, has nearly suspended 
its operations, rising only occasionally when Hekla shows some 
sign of life. Of other boiling sources the number is infinite, 
as the list of places on the map containing the word reykiir 
(reek, steam) or one of its derivatives, sufficiently evinces. One 
western valley, the Reykholtsdalur, is particularly noted for its 
many visible columns of steam. In the middle of one of its 
streams stands a quaint pile of tufa, raised by the deposits of 
a tiny geysir issuing from its top to a height of some feet, 
while at other places steam floats up from fissures in the bottom 
of the stream. Further up the valley, near the farmstead and 
church of Reykholt, the residence and death-place of Snorri 
Sturluson, Iceland's foremost son, there are two considerable 
steaming fountains, one of which (Skrifla) still feeds the great 
bath, constructed of blocks of hewn stone by the celebrated 
sagaman in the thirteenth century. Of the other sites of this 
sort, historically noteworthy are the warm baths of Reykjalaug 
some miles west of the Althing plain, and those of Krossberg 
north of the same spot, in which the early converts to Christ- 
ianity, made such by vote of the Althing, were baptized, 
after refusing to go into the very uncomfortable cold water in 
order to ratify their adoption of a religion in the tenets of 


which they, as yet, felt no very ardent faith. — The lakes 
of Iceland are many in number, as the traveller ascertains, 
the largest being the tingvallavatn, filled with water as trans- 
parent as the air above it, in which swim a marvellous mul- 
titude of trout and other fish. On its northern shore lies the 
Almannagja, with the majestic cascade which falls into it, and 
the I^ingvellir plain, including the Logberg ("Mount of the Law"), 
on which, for more than 800 years, the Icelandic popular 
assembly annually met, failing in only one or two years because 
of the Great Plague, or Black Death, then raging destructively 
in the island, or for some other similar cause. Many are the 
foundations still traceable of the temporary booths in which 
dwelt, in earlier ages, the law-making leaders of the people 
and their adherents. A little smaller than the Pingvallavatn is 
the northland's Myvatn ("Midge Lake"), to which we have 
already referred, and which, too, is richly abundant in fish. 
It is likewise the home of a score of varieties of wild duck, 
who build their myriad nests on the countless islands, many 
of which are old craters, and on low capelets along the shore. 
It is the middle point of a wide field of interest, inviting many 
excursions. In the neighbourhood are the old volcano Krafla, 
the obsidian mountain, the great gorge known as the Grjotgja 
the northern sulphur sources and mud pools, and that grotesque 
lava wonder, the so-called Natt-troll, the demon of the night, 
who, carelessly caught outside of his hidden dwelling of dark- 
ness by the rising sun, was changed by its rays into this ghastly 
figure of stone. — Three products of the realm of nature, be- 
longing largely or exclusively to Iceland, deserve notice in this 
place. The first is the down taken from the nests of the eider- 
duck, and sold in many countries for cushions or bed coverlets. 
These ducks are provided with places for breeding purposes, 
and are protected by strictly-enforced laws. A visit to one of 
their breeding-sites is of much interest to foreigners. The second 
peculiar production is the Icelandic Moss (lichen islaiidiciis) , 


which is everywhere kept on s.ile by foreign pharmacists, 
and from which pastelles for coui(hs, or other preparations, 
sometimes a sort of pudding, for invalids, are made. Thirdly, 
an unique Icelandic product is the double-refracting feldspar 
(^Icelandic feldspar), used by opticians and in optical tests 
and experiments. The world's sole mine, or quarry, of this 
singular material is situated near Eskifjorc^ur in the south-east 
of Iceland, and is the property of the Icelandic government. 
It is often visited by travellers. — In the fjords or along the 
shores (as one sails around the land) are many islands, not a 
few of them noticeable in character or form. Starting from 
Reykjavik and going east-ward, the visitor comes first to the 
Westman group, deriving its name from fugitive slaves of 
Hjorleifur, one of Iceland's first settlers, who were Irish (that is 
"men of the west"). It is a storm-bound home, at times, for human 
beings, yet the largest islet, Heimaey ("home isle") contains a 
hamlet of 600 souls; around it on all sides, tower many bold and 
beetling cliffs, thronged by uncountable sea-birds and washed 
by high-lifted weaves, while above it two massy mountains 
raise their summits, the Heimaklettur and the Helgafell. There- 
after the boat reaches Iceland's southernmost spot, the Dyrholaey, 
through which has been wrought, by the waves, a tunneled 
arch, under which boats may sail, and around which protrude 
from the waters several needle-like and other isles and skerries. 
The pierced rock is known to foreign sailors as Portland. Not 
a long distance farther east, the traveller may see the Reynis- 
drangar (dr ingur signifies a solitary upstanding rock — a name 
and thing well-known all along these coasts), being a small 
group of closely-clustered rocks, lifting from the water their 
sharp-pointed, spire-like pinnacles — a striking spectacle, and one 
warranting the strange stories told of so odd an apparition. 
Beyond this is Papey, now a sort of bird-farm, where great 
flocks of birds and thousands of eggs are yearly harvested and 
shipped, but famous in story as a site on which Christian relics 


and evidences of the visits of Christian priests were found by 
the early pagan settlers. Next comes, in the narrow Faskru5s- 
fjorSur, a glimpse of Skru5urin (the "jeweF'X a green and 
heather-grown speck, shooting upwards as a lofty rock, loved of 
birds and of the sun, and besung by the poets - a pleasing 
contrast to the dark cliffs so near it. Some hours later, the 
long north-eastern cape is rounded, and the boat skirts miles 
of huge rocks, gay with the flutter of countless birds and flecked 
with white masses of guano. In the distance comes into view 
Grimsey, Iceland's only really and truly Arctic possession in 
a strictly geographical sense, for its sorely isolated people look 
out upon the boundless boreal seas beyond the Arctic circle. 
They form the northernmost indigenous little community of 
our Germanic race -— living by fishing in the most frigid of 
waters, and by capturing, at the peril of their lives, the storm- 
birds which build their nests on the almost inaccessable cliffs 
bounding the Eastern shores of their tiny home. Dwelling on 
a dozen sterile farms, they maintain, with difficulty, three or 
four score of sheep, and half a dozen cattle and ponies, whose 
existence, like that of their owners, is one of perennial hunger. 
Yet they have a little church and an intelligent pastor, and a 
much-read island-library of a few hundred volumes. The winter 
days are long and dark and icy and windy, and the winter 
seas between them and the mainland, wave-tossed and storm- 
swept, are sometimes impassable for week after week, so that 
if one in the outer world write an autumn letter to a Grimseyan 
he must await with patience a vernal or summer reply. Of 
late years a new period has dawned in the island's history, 
for one small Icelandic coast steamer now calls twice a year 
(in July and August) to bring the islanders their slender supply 
of coal. The next island which will greet the voyager is a 
famous one, Drangey in the Skagafjor5ur, where Grettir, the 
hero of the Grettissaga, with the aid of its lofty and precipitous 
cliffs, long held his fierce enemies at bay, and yielded at last 


only to treachery. During the sail around the great north- 
western peninsula, many fugitive glimpses will be had of its 
long succession of picturesque fjords, before reaching the broad 
Breidifjorciur, in which lie, in many clusters, the scores of is- 
lands that make up the Icelandic archipelago, f'rom one of 
the little hamlets on these islands. Flatey, came the great and 
important Flateyjar codex of sa^as, one of the vellum treasures of 
the Copenhagen Royal Library. As one passes through the group 
in summer, the sombre rocks, relieved by patches of brightest 
emerald, and set in the smiling waters, form a thousand pretty 
pictures, which the memory long retains. Leaving the big 
flord, one enjoys first a northern and then a southern view 
of the magnificent Snasfellsjokull, of never-fading beauty, and 
perhaps catches sight, at its base, of Stapi, a series of walls 
and caves, formed and framed by masses of basaltic columns, 
very like the Irish Stafifa. 

Foreign Scholars in Iceland. - - There can be no doubt 
of the great utility, to one who is acquiring the Old- Northern 
language, or investigating its literature, of a sojourn in Iceland. 
This is proved — to cite no other cases — by the example of 
Rask, the philologist, and of Maurer, the historian and jurist; 
both did their work better for the months they passed in the 
land in which the tongue they were obliged to use is still a 
spoken dialect — the only ancient speech of any branch of our 
Germanic race anywhere surviving in the mouths of the people. 
The study of it, as it lives, gives the Old-Northern student a 
notable advantage not to be obtained otherwise, and not to 
be easily overestimated. But this is not all. A large and valu- 
able portion of the old literature embraces the "Islendinga 
sogur," the sagas relating solely to Iceland, and nobody can 
fully appreciate their spirit, nor, we might almost say, their 
letter, unless he has seen the scenes in which their events 
transpired. Among the people with whom the foreign student 
in Iceland associates, he will constantly discover traces of the 


ancient life and the ancient customs, each one of which casts 
a new Hght upon the text he is reading. The fact may, per- 
haps, be here recalled that, until nearly a generation after 
Rask's time, no other foreigner became a really profound 
Old-Northern scholar. Up to that date, virtually all the gram- 
matical work, all the lexicological labour was done, and all 
the texts edited and commented by natives of Iceland — though, 
in many instances, the names of others appeared on the title- 
pages of the volumes when published. Even in our day no 
man born beyond Iceland's shores has accomplished such vast 
tasks, in the domain of linguistics and letters, and accomplished 
them so well as the late Gu6brandur Vigfusson. In connection 
with this theme may be quoted the words of an American 
writer: "Following" the story of Old-Northern philology, from 
its beginning down to our own day, it is impossible not to feel 
astonishment at the number of learned labourers which a com- 
munity so small as the population of Iceland has produced. 
As in the ancient days, when the sagaman recounted his tales 
and the skald recited his lays, nearly all the literary life of 
the north was hers — while the other greater and richer lands 
of Scandinavia were well nigh barren — so, in more recent 
times, she has been the chief interpreter of her own creations, 
which embody the history, the mythology, the laws of the 
early Gothic world. It is true that the island commonwealth 
possessed — to begin with — a splendid heritage. All the lore 
of the primeval ages was hers. Her sons still spoke the lan- 
guage of the days in which there were giants; to them the 
larger utterances of the gods were still household voices; even 
the whispers which startled nature, at the dawn of our civili- 
zation, they could yet repeat. The key of the treasures concealed 
by the mysterious runes — powerful as the seal of Solomon 
against the endeavors of other hands — was likewise in their 
possession. All the deities of the Odinic theology found their 
final refuge on Iceland's shores. Only among her icy mountains j 


lingered, at last, the faint echoes of the songs of the heroes 
who battled, and battling, chanted, in the twilight of our race. 
The sturdy republic which the offspring of kings and vikings 
had built up amid the snow of glaciers and the fire of vol- 
canoes, continued to be governed by the archaic codes established 
by the Moses and Solons of the old Teutonic times. To these 
insular Northmen, too, were alone known the stories of the 
years when their ships sailed over the northern waters of the 
Atlantic to another world in the west — centuries before the keel 
of the Italian Columbus ploughed a way through its southern 
waters. The empires of the south could see the setting sun 
in all its glory, but only Iceland knew of the lands of the 
Hesperides beyond, or could guess what that sunset glory 
foretold. They felt, too, the burden of the past, and the honours 
and duties of long descent, for, in tradition at first, in inscribed 
tables afterwards, they could trace backward from son to sire, 
from sire to grandsire, and from grandsire to the remotest 
progenitor, the story of each household. These genealogies 
went backward to a past beyond the Iceland-ward wanderings 
of their people, while the narratives of the wanderings them- 
selves had been transmitted with the detail of a. diarist. The 
families that migrated, in the 5th and 6th centuries, from the 
southern borders of the North Sea, to the coast of Kent, like 
those that in the 17th century, crossed the broader seas that 
separated Old England from New England, took little or no 
pains to hand down to posterity the annals of their progress; 
but the Icelanders, whenever they chose, could walk again in 
the recorded footsteps of their fathers, who, in the 9th and 
loth centuries, had left the fjords of Norway and the islands 
of Scotland to take possession of the green valleys that open 
to the ocean along the shores of their far-northern home. And 
as each of those valleys began to make its history, every 
incident and accident, every gest and scene, were remembered 
and transmitted and described again to the descendants of the \ 

NOTES ON icf:landic matters 

settlers unto the latest generation. But all this was not true 
of the home-land merely. Icelandic bards and story-tellers, 
champions and ramblers, brought back from foreign courts 
and camps accounts of the life of the outer world — the doings 
of kings and warriors, of courtiers and prelates, of soldiers and 
peasants — and told them afresh to their children and their 
children's children. Then it also happened, in the course of 
time, as was natural, that Iceland not only kept the old tongue, 
but learned to wield the new pen as well — the new pen that 
Christianity brought with it into the north. In the houses of 
her chiefs, in the cabins of her yeomen, in the cloisters of 
her priests, hundreds of scribes, through many lifetimes, wrote 
down the sound and the sense of the words that were vanishing, 
and the tales of the deeds that were fading. But for their zeal 

— writing mostly under the cold skies and during the brief sun- 
shine of winter — the most powerful peoples of the present 
world would long ago have lost, past recall, the knowledge 
of what their far-away forefathers thought and wrought ; of how 
they lived and laboured ; of whom they prayed to, and of what 
they fought for. Thus in the northern isle each great man's 
house, in the lapse of years — for there were seekers of rarities 
in those days, too — became a library rich in lettered wealth 
elsewhere unattainable — in the varied learning of the North- 
Teutonic bard and pilgrim and chronicler and rhymer and 
romancer. There could be read such legends of Germanic 
heroes as were not to be found in other Germanic lands; such 
narratives of the Scandinavian kings as no other Scandinavian 
region possessed; such lives of English saints and Scottish 
island-jarls as Britain knew not of. But in the end the lore- 
loving little land was fated to lose much of this well-earned 
wealth and glory. The manuscripts on vellum and paper — 
so many that the number of them still extant seems incredible 

— were carried away— as Rome despoiled Greece of her marbles, 
as Napoleon despoiled Italy of her canvasses — to enrich and 



make famous the libraries of foreign lands, not a few of them ! 
perishing in transit by accidents of fire and flood. But it turned j 
out that to the foreign despoilers the manuscripts were dumb. ' 
Their words were voiceless except to those who wrote them, j 
They were as Unintelligible as were the hieroglyphs carved on 
the obelisks of Egypt to the Romans, who pulled them down 
on the banks of the Nile to set them up again on the banks 
of the Tiber. Thus it was that the children of Iceland had 
again to rescue from oblivion the records of our ancestral wis- j 
dom. They had to interpret, to the duller generations of the 
old family, the words their ancestors had formerly committed 
to stone and parchment, to reconstruct the monuments and 
muniments, of which their new owners proved to be unworthy 
keepers. It is then to Icelanders that we owe the first grammars 
of the primitive speech, published at Copenhagen and Oxford. 
It is they who have been the compilers of dictionaries and 
the commentators of the classic writings. But, in addition to 
all this, the general literary production of Iceland in modem 
times, in branches of letters other than those we are treating 
of, is likewise surprising. Her people number 80.000, to which 
may be added 25,000 more in northern North America, who 
still prefer to speak their own tongue rather than the English. 
This is the population of a minor city in the larger lands of 
civilization. But an examination of the yearly output of her 
presses — journals, magazines, books, pamphlets -- and a com- 
parison of it with the literary productions of any other com- 
munity of many times the size, will show how wonderful is 
the love of letters still fostered by the rocky soil to which the 
Eddas and Sagas of Iceland's first centuries owe their birth." 
Recent Constitutional Clianges. — The existing constitu- 
tion of Iceland was conferred upon it by the present King of 
Denmark in 1874, on the occasion of the celebration of the 
millenial anniversary of the island's settlement. It gave to the 
ancient Althing (revived, with only advisory functions in 1845, 


after a dormancy of more than forty years) full legislative 
powers, and divided it into two houses. At the head of the 
government at home was a governor-general (landshdfdi7igi), 
who represented the king, and presented and explained to the 
Althing the government bills, prepared in Copenhagen, To 
the king was given, morever, an absolute veto. The minister 
of justice in the Danish cabinet bore the supplementary title 
of "Minister for Iceland," and, as such, presided over a minis- 
terial bureau, officered, in other respects, by Danes and Ice- 
landers. For some little time a political agitation has been 
carried on with the view of bringing about some changes in 
the administration of the island, and an act to that end was 
finally passed by the Althing of 1903, having previously been 
adopted, as constitutionally required, by the preceding Althing. 
It does away with the governor-generalship, and creates a 
special "minister" — the title does not seem to be too happily 
chosen — solely occupied with Icelandic affairs. He must sit 
with the Althing — to which he is responsible — being present, 
as necessity may require, in either house, and must therefore 
be familiar with the Icelandic language (an euphemistic way 
of saying that he shall always be an Icelander); he resides, in 
general, in Reykjavik, though having a sub-office, for con- 
venience' sake, at Copenhagen; when in the Danish capital, for 
the purpose of laying the measures approved by the Althing 
before the sovereign — who still retains his veto power — for his 
sanction and signature, he has a seat in the council of state, but 
has no vote either on matters solely relating to Denmark, nor 
on those relating to both Denmark and Iceland, just as the 
Danish nembers of the council have no voice in affairs purely 
Icelandic. It should be mentioned, in this connection, that, 
by the existing arrangement, Iceland contributes nothing 
towards the maintenance of the monarchy, nor is she called 
upon to furnish either men or means for the support of the 
army and navy; it is in consideration of these facts, and 


perhaps, in part, owing to her self-imposed lack of representation 
in the Danish parliament, that she has so little to say in 
reference to affairs common to the two divisions of the kingdom. 
She pays, however, the salaries of all her officials, the cost of 
all her public institutions and public works, and the larger 
share of the expenses of the postal service, which connects her 
with Copenhagen and the continent. The old governor-general's 
house in Reykjavik is to be refitted for government offices, 
while a new official residence is to be erected for the "minister," 
who in Iceland becomes the visible head of the state, and 
who is to be aided by an undersecretary and three chiefs of 
departmental bureaus. By the new constitutional amendments 
the two houses of the Althing are to be slightly enlarged. 
The people will hereafter elect 34 members to the lower house, 
of whom 8 are to be selected by the chamber to sit in the 
upper house, thus leaving 26 to form the lower body; to these 
8 the king adds by appointment 6 others, so that the upper house 
thus consists of 14 members (formerly 12, of whom 6 were desig- 
nated by the crown). The Althing, as before, will meet every two 
years unless called together oftener by the king. On the whole, 
the effect of the new measures will be to accentuate Iceland's 
internal independence of Danish control, rather than to enhance it. 
As these pages are printing, it is announced that the new 
"minister" is Mr. Hannes Hafstein, a member of the Althing 
and prefect (syshiniadur) of Isafjarciarsysla. Mr. Hafstein is a 
person of sterling ability, and has published a volume of ad- 
mirable verse. Perhaps no better appointment could have been 

Iceland's present Progress. — It seems not yet to be 
understood in England and America that Iceland has now 
entered upon a period of marked progress, the result - perhaps i 
somewhat slow in coming — of a generation of self-dependence, 
which has forever put an end to the foreign misrule of which 1 
she was so long the unhappy victim. In one of the debates | 


on the budget, during the sessions of the Althing just closed, 

the chairman of the committee on finance of the lower house | 

contrasted the outlay of the country in the financial period j 

1902— 1903 (two years) with that of 1882 — 1883. Twenty years | 
ago the amount appropriated at a single session or term of 
the Althing was 800,000 crowns; the amount voted by the 

recent one was 1,668,000. As to the items, the largest one, [ 

the sum expended for the development of the country's resources, | 

principally agriculture and the fisheries, is twenty times larger ; 

now than then; that assigned to the post, to roads and to I 

other means of communication in and around the island, is | 
four times as great; that devoted to the maintenance of 42 

district physicians, and to hygienic purposes, is thrice as great, 1 

and to common schools nearly three times as large. Entirely j 
new items are a small appropriation for the advancement of 

art, being scholarships for study abroad; and the very liberal ; 
one for the planting of forests, that is, to continue the experi- 
ments now making, both in the north and the south, on a 
large scale by foreign experts. Taking all grades and all classes 

of schools, the sums applied, in one shape or another, to ; 

education and to the advancement of science and letters in- , 

eluding libraries, collections, popular enlightenment and various * 

subjects of research) form, as usual, nearly or quite one fourth \ 
of the budget. Iceland has no debt; on the other hand, she 

has, invested in valuable securities, a reserve fund of nearly ; 

2,000,000 crowns, of which the interest is a part of her annual ; 

receipts, although the principal may be drawn upon in cases i 

of emergency. — In addition to the National Bank (Landsbanki), j 

estabhshed at Reykjavik in 1886. which, with every year, has i 

increased both its domestic and foreign transactions, and its | 

deposits, besides having built itself a handsome edifice in the j 

capital, the Althing authorized a second important bank (Is- i 

landsbanki), with a capital of 2,000,000 crowns, which may be 1 

increased to 3,000,000. It is to have the right to issue paper \ 


currency, which must be secured by one half gold (kept in its 
vaults at Reykjavik) and one half shares or values of the national 
banks of certain countries (England, Germany, Denmark, Nor- 
way and so on) to be so placed as to be readily available for 
th( !( (Icmption of its notes. The minimum amount of the 
capital for the new undertaking has now been subscribed by 
banking institutions in Copenhagen and Christiania, and the 
bank is to begin its operations next year. — The total amount 
of exports and imports of Iceland is estimated to exceed, for 
the present year, 18,000,000 crowns (over 1,000,000 pounds) - a 
remarkable exhibit considering that the population is still a 
little less than 80,000. The inhabitants numbered in 1801 only 
47,270; in 1901 the exact figures were 78,740, nothwithstanding 
a very large emigration, especially since 1880, to northwestern 
Canada, where there are now many Icelandic institutions, churches 
and journals, supported by an Icelandic-speaking population 
of some 25,000. At the existing rate of increase, the number 
of souls in Iceland will reach 100,000 not far from the middle 
,^of the century, but the rate is likely to rise rather than fall. 
The great improvements made and making in dwellings, the 
superior style of living which prosperity has developed, and 
the better and more easily obtainable medical service have 
greatly reduced the former prevalent infant mortality throughout 
the island, and have prolonged the average duration of life, 
between the periods 1801 — 70 and 1 871— 1900, by nearly ten 
years. The rapid construction of carriage roads, now in progress 
everywhere, is both aiding public health and promoting the 
extension of trade. There can, therefore, no longer be any doubt 
that a time of high prosperity is before Iceland. Its admirable 
national government, its great coast and inland fisheries, hardly 
excelled in any part of the globe, its immense herds of sheep and 
ponies (fed by its large extent of excellent summer pasturage), 
amounting to nearly twelve head of sheep to each inhabitant and 
one horse to every two inhabitants, and its various minor resources 


will secure this — not to speak of what, with the diminishing coal 
deposits of the neighbouring countries, may ultimately prove of 
inestimable value — the available force of its very numerous water- 
falls, so rich in w^ater and so high in fall, w^hich has been calcula- 
ted at some thousands of millions of horse-power. 

Iceland's new Coat of Arms.— Simultaneously with the 
signing of the act establishing the above-mentioned new clauses 
of the constitution — w^hich go into operation with the beginning 
of 1904 — the king of Denmark has sanctioned the adoption 
of a new coat of arms for the Icelandic state. Its old one, which 
is to be seen in certain old books, printed in Iceland or else- 
where, was of a very quaint design. It represented a stock-fish, 
such as, caught so numerously in Icelandic waters, is sent, dried 
and chpped, to all quarters of the globe. It was crowned and 
emblazoned upon a proper shield, though it was never so con- 
ventionalized by the heralds as to give it the grace which even 
ugly objects assume when thus treated. In modern times it 
has been little used, although it is displayed over the door of 
the national Althing's House at Reykjavik. But Icelandic taste 
in escutcheons has, of late, turned from the sea to the air, and 
so the king has proclaimed that the new armorial bearings 
shall be a falcon, the largest native bird of prey. The falco 
islandicus is a sort of cousin german to the gerfalcon — the 
true gerfalcon being Greenlandic or Norwegian; and something 
like a depot of these birds used to be kept, we believe, at 
Bessasta5ir or Reykjavik, whence the Danish kings, in the days 
of falconry, w^ere wont to obtain specimens for the sports of 
the Danish and other courts. Whether the design for the new 
emblem of Iceland's nationality has yet passed through the hands 
of any learned heraldic authorities, that it may be properly and 
fittingly displayed, is not known. The description in the newspa- 
pers simply says, that it consistsof a w^hite falcon on a blue ground. 
We are not told whether the falcon is to be. flying or at rest, 
couchant or rampant. The arms will doubtless be employed 


as a seal of state, for political purposes, or as a decorative 
ornament. Of course, like other heraldic emblems taken from 
the natural kingdom, it cannot, for artistic reasons, be adapted 
to the purposes of a banner; but that is, of course, not the 
intention, since so long as the connection between Denmark 
and Iceland shall last the commercial flag of the latter will be 
the white cross of St. Valdemar - who, by the way, must have 
spoken a tongue very near akin to Icelandic. 

The Icelandic Post. — The mail reaches Iceland from for- 
eign parts ahnost wholly by steamers of the Danish United 
Steamship Company, under contract with the Icelandic govern- 
ment. These steamers take from Copenhagen every class of 
mail matter, and always touch, on their voyages to and fro, 
at Leith, Scotland. They leave Copenhagen three or four days 
before their arrival in Scotland, and between their trips from 
three to five weeks, according to the season of the year, intervene. 
Postal matter may therefore escape a possible delay of some 
weeks if sent, in the first instance, direct to Leith — there to 
be put on board the mail steamer, before its departure north, 
by the postal authorities at that place. Until now, only letters 
journals and books (book post) could be forwarded by the way 
of Leith; but just as this is written new arrangements have 
been announced by the British Post Office, by virtue of which 
parcels of all sorts may likewise be posted by the Leith route. 
The rates are: for parcels weighing not over 3 lbs., i shilling; 
over 3 lbs., but not over 7 lbs., i shiUing 6 pence; over 7 lbs., 
but not over 1 1 lbs., 2 shilHngs. Therefore all postal matter 
(letters, newspapers, books, parcels) for Iceland, especially if 
dispatched from the United States, Canada, Great Britain, 
France, Holland, Belgium, Italy or Germany, should be plainly 
marked via Leith, Scotland. It is also well to place in the 
address not only the name of Iceland in the language pf the 
country whence the matter is sent, but also in English (Iceland), 
since the word "Island" (German, Danish, Swedish, Dutch) 


may be misunderstood in England and America, in which it 
has another and more common signification, Iceland (with 
Denmark) forms a part of the Berne International Union, so 
that the general postal rates are the same as in the rest of the 
civilized world (that is, the same as between Germany and 
France, or between Canada or the United States and England). 
A list of the farmsteads of Iceland, their names properly given, 
may be had at the Reykjavik and Copenhagen postoffices. It 
is compiled by Vilhelm Finsen and is entitled: "Islenzkt ba^jatal." 




— "ivffiir^oTssi'